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How to format appendix

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5570 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA 91302. Appendix. A Zestimate® home valuation is Zillow's estimated market value. Pool In The City. It is appendix not an Romance Essay, appraisal. Use it as a starting point to determine a home's value. Format. Learn more. If your home facts are wrong this will cause an example, incorrect Zestimate, click here to update them. Facts and Features. How To Format Appendix. RoomType: Bonus Room, Main Floor Bedroom, Master Suite, Formal Entry, Great Room, Guest/Maid's Quarters, Wine Cellar, Kitchen, Laundry. Postmodernism Characteristics. Heating: Forced air Cooling: Central Heating: Central Furnace.

Appliances included: Dishwasher, Freezer, Garbage disposal, Refrigerator, Trash compactor Appliances: Double Oven, Warmer Oven Drawer, 6 Burner Stove. Floor size: 8,110 sqft Flooring: Hardwood. Fireplace Storage InteriorFeatures: Recessed Lighting, Built-Ins, Stone Counters, High Ceilings (9 Feet+), Open Floor Plan, Beamed Ceilings, Granite Counters, Crown Moldings. AssociationAmenities: Club House, Tennis, Hiking Trails, Horse Trails. Structure type: Cape cod Single Family PropertyType: Residential. Roof type: Other Exterior material: Stone. How To Format. Built in 1968 YearBuiltSource: Assessor. Pool SpaFeatures: Private AssociationAmenities: Pool. Lot: 1.35 acres LotFeatures: Landscaped LotSizeSource: Assessor.

Unit floor #: 1 Parcel #: 2049026049. CountyOrParish: Los Angeles StateOrProvince: CA StreetSuffix: Road City: Hidden Hills Country: US. Elementary school: Round Meadow Middle school: Las Virgenes High school: Calabasas School district: Las Virgenes HighSchoolDistrict: Las Virgenes. CommunityFeatures: Horse Trails, Street Lighting, Riding/Stables. Wired Sewer: Sewer Paid WaterSource: Public. Last sold: Aug 2017 for $6,408,655 Price/sqft: $973 LaundryFeatures: Individual Room, Inside SpecialListingConditions: Standard StandardStatus: Active MLSAreaMajor: HHIL - Hidden Hills LivingAreaUnits: Square Feet RoomKitchenFeatures: Kitchen Island, Granite Counters RoomBathroomFeatures: Bathtub, Shower, Double Sinks In Master Bath, Walk-in shower, Closet in Comparing and Contrasting Essay, bathroom. How To Format. Days on the ewells Zillow: Less than 1 11 shoppers saved this home. Find assessor information on the county website. Choose your own comparables to how to format, figure out a good offer price.

The median Zestimate valuation for a given geographic area on a given day is the Zillow Home Value Index. Learn more. Based on three metricssale-to-list price ratio, the prevalence of price cuts on the ewells home listings, and time-on-marketthe market temperature provides information on format appendix the current balance of postmodernism literature, bargaining power between buyers and sellers in this zip code relative to other zip codes in the same metropolitan area. How To. A particular zip code may be identified as a good market for buyers in a metro market favorable to sellers overall. Postmodernism Characteristics. Learn more. $2,625,449 4 bds · 5 ba · 3,810 sqft. How To Format Appendix. 24960 John Fremont Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,489,436 4 bds · 5 ba · 5,007 sqft. 5552 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. 5576 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $6,001,118 4 bds · 6 ba · 9,913 sqft. 5576 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. 5550 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $3,299,121 6 bds · 6 ba · 5,800 sqft.

5575 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. 25067 Lewis And Clark Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,283,491 5 bds · 4 ba · 3,710 sqft. 5550 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. 24959 John Fremont Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $8,724,982 6 bds · 10 ba · 11,158 sqft. 5580 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,536,972 5 bds · 5 ba · 5,000 sqft. 24947 John Fremont Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. 25081 Lewis And Clark Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,153,631 4 bds · 3 ba · 3,609 sqft. 5556 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,818,698 5 bds · 4 ba · 4,014 sqft. 25039 Lewis And Clark Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,410,005 4 bds · 5 ba · 3,000 sqft.

24960 Kit Carson Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. Of Kaur Essay. $2,527,935 7 bds · 5 ba · 4,321 sqft. 24935 John Fremont Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $1,882,157 5 bds · 4 ba · 3,308 sqft. 5554 Bill Cody Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,316,669 4 bds · 3 ba · 3,294 sqft. 24968 Kit Carson Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $2,831,821 5 bds · 4.5 ba · 4,539 sqft. 24952 Kit Carson Rd, Hidden Hills, CA. $5,382,986 5 bds · 7 ba · 6,304 sqft. 5555 Dixon Trail Rd, Hidden Hills, CA.

GreatSchools ratings are based on a comparison of how to format appendix, test results for the ewells, all schools in the state. How To. It is designed to be a starting point to help parents make baseline comparisons, not the only factor in Dome Pool City Essay, selecting the right school for your family. Disclaimer: School attendance zone boundaries are supplied by Maponics and are subject to change. Check with the applicable school district prior to making a decision based on these boundaries. About the ratings: GreatSchools ratings are based on a comparison of appendix, test results for The Divine Romance Essay, all schools in how to, the state. The Warrior Pool In The City Of Worland Essay. It is designed to be a starting point to help parents make baseline comparisons, not the format appendix, only factor in selecting the right school for your family. Learn more. Disclaimer: School attendance zone boundaries are provided by a third party and of reflection paper subject to change. Format Appendix. Check with the applicable school district prior to making a decision based on these boundaries. Do you own this home?

See your Owner Dashboard. Find out how much house you can afford and get pre-approved for a mortgage in minutes. A Lender can assist you with pre-approval process and of Kaur and Ha Essay answer any question you have. A Lender will also be calling you back to assist with pre-approval. We'll send you an how to format appendix, email with a link to get pre-approved on Zillow or you can get started by the Stories and Ha Essay clicking below. We weren't able to format appendix, process your pre-approval request. Please go to Zillow Mortgages directly by clicking below. Learn how to of reflection, appear as the agent above. Find out how to appendix how much house you can afford and the ewells get pre-approved for format appendix, a mortgage in minutes. A Lender can assist you with pre-approval process and answer any question you have.

A Lender will also be calling you back to assist with pre-approval. We'll send you an email with a link to get pre-approved on The Warrior Zillow or you can get started by format clicking below. We weren't able to literature, process your pre-approval request. Please go to Zillow Mortgages directly by clicking below.

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resume wi java Seeking an exciting position on a Java-centric project acting as a software architect, hands-on developer, and mentor to appendix junior Java developers. Also available as an expert Java instructor with curricula for courses included. Published by Macmillan Computer Publishing, August 1999. Comprehensive coverage through Java 2 - 510 pages, over 18,000 copies sold. Book has received 25 perfect 5 out of 5-star user ratings on Amazon.com. Sun Certified Programmer for of the standard, the Java 2 Platform 1.4 [SCJP - Aug 22, 2003] Sun Certified Web Component Developer for how to format, the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition [SCWCD - Aug 21, 2003] Sun Certified Programmer for the Java 2 Platform [SCJP - Feb 8, 1999] Sun Certified Java Programmer 1.1 [SCJP - May 5, 1998] Sun Certified Java Programmer 1.0 [SCJP - May 2, 1997] Java Web Start - JNLP standalone applications n-tier C/S applications Java Servlets JavaServer Pages - JSP Struts JSTL Custom Tag development JDBC XML (SAX, DOM, JDOM) Enterprise JavaBeans - EJB JNDI Multithreaded applications RMI Swing toolkit Custom GUI Component design in AWT Swing TCP/IP Sockets Java Applets Collections API Java2D API Reflection Printing (1.2) SmartCard technology J2EE and J2SE. XML (including: DTD, XML Schema, XSL, XSLT) UML (with Rational Rose and Visio) HTML, XHTML, CSS JavaScript C programming Bash, Korn shell, AWK scripts.

PostgreSQL Oracle (including using Java inside the database) Microsoft SQL Server Sybase (SQL Transact-SQL) Informix (SQL, 4GL, ESQL/C, SPL) hsql (Hypersonic-SQL) Software design and processing distribution Database design and data modeling Graphical User Interface design. BEA WebLogic Server JBoss Apache Tomcat EntireX Apache Ant (including writing custom tasks) Apache Xerces, Xalan Rational Rose Eclipse JBuilder (incl. WebLogic Ed.) Visual SlickEdit JCreator Vim, Vi CVS, WinCVS, SmartCVS, CVSNT Subversion MKS Source Integrity Visual SourceSafe JClass libraries JThreadKit SimpleServlets ProgramixGenericLib Dash-O Pro. Linux - Kubuntu, Ubuntu, Fedora Solaris Unix and Comparing of Kaur Essay, other Unix flavors Windows 95/98/NT/2000/XP. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. July 2004 - present. Java Consultant and Mentor, Minnesota Department of Human Services, St. Paul, MN. Architected, designed, and lead development of the MEC 2 Integration Project for childcare assistance. This Java Web Start client and Java Servlet middle tier-based system was created to replace a browser-based system that was previously developed.

This system is how to format appendix, used by both county and state workers in Minnesota to determine eligibility for child care assistance, fight fraud by Romance, both families seeking assistance and by childcare providers, and to how to format streamline the the ewells, process from initial family application through provider payment. The architecture consists of how to format a Swing-based Java Web Start (JNLP) client that serializes objects over an HTTPS connection to a Java Servlet middle tier. The middle tier connects through EntireX to Natural code which talks to an Adabas database that contains both this new child care information and information on other Department of Human Services programs. Example Of Reflection Paper! Trained 40 state employees who where mainframe programmers with no Java or object-oriented experience. These employees were trained in Java, UML, JDBC, XML, Serlvets and JSP's, and format, Java Web Start part-time during normal business hours over several months.

There were three groups trained over a period of a few years with breaks between groups. Mentored the newly trained state employees in Java as they developed the new child care assistance application. Encouraged the use of example paper open-source tools to save the how to, taxpayers' money, including the use of Eclipse, Ant, Tomcat, Linux, CVS, and Subversion. Continued to support a small team of state employees who were maintaining the old, browser-based (JSP, Struts, WebLogic, Microsoft SQL Server) child care assistance application while the replacement application was being developed. Standard Of Taste! Used Java EE and Java SE technologies: JNLP, Java Web Start, Swing, Object Serialization, XML, Java Servlets; ProgramixGenericLib toolkit; UML diagrams for design; Eclipse 3.0, 3.1, and 3.2 for editing; CVS, WinCVS, SmartCVS, CVSNT, and Subversion for version control; and Ant for builds. Metropolitan State University, St. Format Appendix! Paul, MN. August 2004 - present.

Adjunct Professor - Information and Computer Sciences Department - Evenings. Taught ICS 462 - Operating Systems semester-long course. Taught ICS 492 - XML and Java three-evening seminar. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. March 1998 - present. Java Instructor - Evening, Weekday, and Weekend classes, Twin Cities, MN. Instructor for both Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE) and example of reflection paper, Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) training courses. Format! J2SE courses: Intro to Java (Java I), Advanced Java (Java II), Core Java - Part A, Core Java - Part B, and Threads and Java. J2EE courses: Database Access with JDBC, XML and Java, Java Servlets and JSP, EJB - Enterprise JavaBeans, and Java Web Start Advanced n-tier Development classes.

Delivered courses to various clients: Minnesota Department of Revenue, St. Paul, MN Dakota County Technical College, Eagan, MN Minneapolis Community Technical College, Minneapolis, MN Blue Cross Blue Shield, Eagan, MN Lockheed Martin, Eagan, MN Cap Gemini Ernst Young, Edina, MN Compuware, Bloomington, MN CIBER Inc., Eagan, MN Developed curricula for all classes including quizzes, examples, and graded lab projects. Used Ant and Eclipse as tools (including teaching the students how to use these tools). Consistently received outstanding student evaluations. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. October 2003 - June 2004. Java Consultant and Mentor, Minnesota Department of Human Services, St.

Paul, MN. Participated in Romance Essay the development of the MEC 2 childcare assistance project. This J2EE and format, browser-based system is used by both county and and Contrasting and Ha, state workers in Minnesota to format determine eligibility for child care assistance, fight fraud by the ewells, both families seeking assistance and by how to format appendix, childcare providers, to streamline the process from initial family application through provider payment, and much more. JSP's, Struts, internally developed Custom Tag Libraries, JSP Standard Tag Libraries (JSTL), HTML, and JavaScript are used for the ewells, the pages viewed by a browser-based client. BEA WebLogic Server is used on how to appendix, the middle tier where EJB's, JDBC, and SQL are used to of taste talk to Microsoft SQL Server. Java applications utilizing Java I/O, JDBC, and SQL are used to do batch processing of data feeds into and out-of the system. Encouraged an eventual migration to using XML for these data files. Acted as a designer and a developer to how to appendix track down and fix tough bugs and to example add enhanced functionality and new features throughout the system. Acted as a mentor to how to appendix four State of Minnesota employees (with no Java experience!) to educate them on the Java technologies used in this application and to cultivate them into full Java developers capable of supporting and extending the system.

Enabled the four state employees to take over full application responsibility-including the ability to City Essay add new functionality-from an expensive outside consulting company resulting in huge cost-savings for the State of Minnesota. Encouraged the migration to open-source tools to save the taxpayers' money, including the use of Eclipse instead of JBuilder, CVS and WinCVS instead of Microsoft Visual SourceSafe, and JBoss instead of appendix WebLogic. Of Reflection Paper! Used J2EE technologies: JSP's, Struts 1.0 and how to format, 1.1, custom JSP tags, JSTL, HTML, JavaScript, Servlets, and EJB's running on BEA WebLogic; SimpleServlets toolkit; ProgramixGenericLib toolkit; JDBC and SQL to talk to Microsoft SQL Server; UML diagrams for and Contrasting the Stories and Ha, design; Collections API; JBuilder WebLogic Edition and Eclipse 3.0Mx for editing; WinCVS, SmartCVS, CVSNT for version control; Microsoft Visual SourceSafe for version control; Ant for builds; Real VNC for appendix, support of telecommuting developers. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. September 2002 - November 2003. Java Consultant, WACS, Brooklyn Park, MN. Architected, designed, and developed the AMR Navigator 3-tier interactive configuration, status, and reporting system. This system is used by electric and the ewells, gas utility companies to how to appendix monitor product usage, infrastructure events (like power outages), live polling of individual meters, and many more tasks to add efficiency to the utility companies' operations and demand planning.

Java Web Start was used on postmodernism literature, the client tier to how to appendix build a highly interactive client which utilized multiple threads for simultaneous background tasks, custom graphical components, and the HTTP protocol to serialize objects up to (and back from) a Java Servlet middle-tier. Java Servlet technology was used on the middle tier to respond to serialized object requests. The servlet had extensive security and server-side session storage to streamline communication with the client tier. JDBC was used by the ewells, the servlet to communicate with an Oracle database. Used Java Web Start (JNLP technology); J2EE Servlets running on Tomcat, JRun and BEA WebLogic; JDBC and SQL to talk to Oracle; Java stored procedures inside the Oracle database; UML diagrams for design; Swing; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; TCP/IP socket networking; Java 2D API for printing; extensive multithreading; JClass libraries; Vim and how to appendix, Eclipse for literature characteristics, editing; CVS and WinCVS for version control; Ant for builds. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. July 2000 - November 2006. Chief Architect, Designer, Developer for JThreadKit.

Architected, designed, and developed JThreadKit multithreading utilities commercial product (see jthreadkit.com). Appendix! JThreadKit is Dome Pool Essay, a collection of Java API's which greatly accelerate the development of solid, thread-safe applications. Designed and developed the all classes and interfaces in the library. Architected, designed, and developed the how to appendix, custom software key system that allows for developers to use a fully functional version of Comparing and Contrasting of Kaur Essay JThreadKit for up to 30 days. After 30 this free trial period, the libraries go into a lockout mode until a purchased software key is format, input.

After the software key is validated, the libraries return to a fully operational mode. Architected, designed, and developed the OS-independent installer application. Developers download a single executable jarfile containing the Comparing of Kaur and Ha Essay, installer and all of the appendix, supporting libraries and documentation. Once downloaded, this jarfile is simply run by double-clicking the file. Of The Standard! The installation process asks questions, requires the acknowledgement of the license agreement, and how to format, optionally accepts a license key or installs for a 30-day evaluation. Architected, designed, and developed the automated regression testing system. Of Reflection Paper! This Swing-based graphical module runs thousands of regression tests in parallel using multiple threads and how to format appendix, helps ensure the quality of each release of JThreadKit. Architected, designed, and participated in example of reflection paper the development of a site builder application that is used to regenerate the web site pages quickly and efficiently while adding the header, trailer, and navigation bar. This site builder tool runs in two modes, one mode to how to format generate the web site for upload to The Warrior Dome City the web server, the how to, other mode to generate a portion of the site for the documentation that gets put on the developer's machine during the the ewells, installation process. Handled the business-side of JThreadKit including marketing, advertising, and the outsourced connection for the e-commerce purchase of how to format software keys.

Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. January 2001 - November 2002. Java Consultant, Simplex Technology, Culver City, CA. Architected, designed, and developed multiple business computing modules using Java Web Start technology and plain Java Applets for example paper, web-page delivered simplicity. Applications include regression analysis, moving average, exponential smoothing, minimization of transportation costs, linear programming, along with many others. Format Appendix! Created client-side graphs of Pool in the City data and results using Java2D API. Created detailed printed pages with textual data and charts using the appendix, Java 2D Printing API. Used Java Web Start (JNLP) technology, Swing, and Visual SlickEdit. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN.

June 2001 - December 2001. Java Consultant, Circus Software, Edina, MN. Participated in the analysis, design, and development of the RingMaster system. Architected, designed, and of the, developed the client side of this n-tier product, which is a Swing-based application that makes extensive use of the how to appendix, drag-and-drop idiom. Built several custom components using the Model-View-Controller architecture including a custom dragging solution. Explored use of Java Web Start and EJB technologies. Utilized elements of the Extreme Programming approach (especially pair programming, coding standards, and writing test cases first). Used Java Web Start (JNLP technology); UML diagrams in Visio for design; Swingextensively; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; multithreading; JClass libraries; Vim and Visual SlickEdit for editing; CVS and WinCVS for example paper, version control.

Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. October 2001 - November 2001. Java Consultant, Notiva, Bloomington, MN. Participated on how to appendix, the architecture and design of Notiva's business-to-business system for streamlining the reconciliation of invoices, purchase orders, and other billing processes. Pool In The Of Worland! Worked with J2EE and J2SE technologies including JSP's, Servlets, Java Web Start, EJB's, BEA WebLogic, Apache Tomcat, and RedHat Linux. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. June 2001 - September 2001. Java Instructor, Minnesota Midrange Solutions, Plymouth, MN. Instructor for Swing, HTML, Servlets/JSP, Unified Modeling Language (UML), and Object-Oriented Design Patterns classes. Taught students how to format use the following tools: JBuilder, Oracle (connecting via JDBC from JBuilder and Tomcat), Visio 2000 (for UML modeling), and Apache Tomcat (for Servlets and JSP).

Received excellent student evaluations. Programix Incorporated, Plymouth, MN. May 2000 - March 2001. Java Consultant, Digital Cyclone, Minnetonka, MN. Participated in the development of the My-Cast.com local weather forecasting system. Worked extensively with Java 2 including threads, TCP/IP sockets, Swing, Java 2D, Java Servlets, and JDBC on of the standard of taste, the Solaris Unix platform along with the Oracle RDBMS. Designed and built a high-availability middle tier that cached hundreds of format megabytes of of reflection data. Appendix! This data was refreshed at The Warrior Dome in the City of Worland, 3-hour intervals.

A key element of the design was to recycle large data structure objects to ease the burden on the garbage collector (without the recycling, garbage collection would sometimes freeze up the application for how to format appendix, long periods of time - up to ten minutes!). This server was multithreaded and was able to quickly and safely handle simultaneous data requests coming in standard over TCP/IP socket connections. How To Appendix! Architected, designed, and developed a browser-based status and configuration administration tool. This Java Servlet-based tool generated forms and HTML pages used to convey the in the City of Worland, current status of various servers behind the appendix, scenes in the My-Cast system. The servlet also facilitated the on-the-fly changing of some configuration parameters of the servers being monitored. Architected, designed, and and Contrasting of Kaur and Ha, developed a browser-based load-testing tool. This Java servlet-based tool generated a form to format accept testing parameters and then launched background threads to load test a server with thousands of simultaneous requests. The timing results of the literature characteristics, load testing were calculated and displayed by the servlet. Used J2EE Servlets running on Tomcat and iPlanet; JDBC and SQL to appendix talk to Oracle; extensive multithreading and paper, TCP/IP networking; Swing; Reflection API; Serialization; Collections API; Java 2D API; Sun's Solaris Unix for the development environment, Vim for format appendix, editing; CVS for version control.

Programix Incorporated, Minneapolis, MN. January 1998 - May 2000. Java Consultant, Sylvan Prometric, Edina, MN. Collaborated in the design of a distributed, n-tier Client/Server application. Design goals included creating a very thin client capable of The Warrior Dome Pool City of Worland Essay running in how to format a browser or as a stand-alone application. Design also called for of the, a highly scalable server capable of load balancing with other servers. Worked extensively with Java 1.1 and appendix, 1.2 including threads, TCP/IP sockets, image processing, and AWT (including building custom lightweight components), Swing, Java 2D, Java Servlets, XML parsing, JDBC, and RMI. Explored early EJB technologies.

Explored early Java Web Start technology. Comparing And Contrasting The Stories Essay! Used Object Oriented Analysis (OOA) and Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques using Unified Modeling Language (UML) and how to, Rational Rose. Used JBuilder, Kawa, Vi, Vim, MKS Source Integrity, and Sybase RDBMS. Assisted in the evaluation and recruitment of additional development staff. Programix Incorporated, Minneapolis, MN.

May 1997 - January 1998. Java Consultant, TECo Incorporated, Edina, MN. Coded Java applications on both client-side and server-side using JDBC, RMI, TCP/IP sockets, and advanced multithreading. Lead the design of Java software architecture for distributed computing. ATT and Lucent Technologies, Whippany, NJ. February 1995 - January 1997. Head Software Designer and System Architect, Environment and Safety Systems Development Group. Led investigation of distributed processing model to support a Graphical User Interface for new applications. Romance Essay! Conceived, designed, and format, led implementation of software architecture for standard of taste, new systems including the appendix, processing split between the clients and the server. Designed and administered databases using the Essay, Informix Online Dynamic Server 7.1. Performed routine UNIX system administration and hardware/software upgrades on the Sun Microsystems hardware.

Assisted in the analysis phase, which included data modeling and how to format, graphical user interface design for a safety system that was being re-engineered. Designed, coded, and tested application software written in HTML, CGI scripts, C, Informix ESQL/C, Informix 4GL, Informix Stored Procedure Language, PowerBuilder, and UNIX shell scripts. Investigated and developed prototype Java applications for future project development. Led development team in the ewells software engineering principles. The Chubb Institute, Parsippany, NJ. December 1995 - February 1997. Client/Server Curriculum Instructor - Evenings. Instructor for Sybase, UNIX, and how to format appendix, C courses in the Client/Server curriculum. Developed 250-page student guide for Sybase class. ATT, Whippany, NJ.

July 1992 - January 1995. Software Developer, Environment and Safety Systems Development Group. Designed, coded, and tested application software in C, Informix ESQL/C, Informix 4GL, and UNIX Korn shell scripts. Conceived, proposed, and led migration of and Contrasting the Stories Essay applications from Amdahl mainframe to a Sun Microsystems SPARCserver 1000 for a significant cost savings and performance improvement. How To Format Appendix! Configured, assembled, and cutover to Sun 1000 running the Solaris 2.4 UNIX System V Release 4 operating system. The Warrior Dome City! Performed routine UNIX system administration and hardware/software upgrades. July 1990 - June 1992.

Support Engineer, Northeastern Regional Technical Assistance Center. Provided 24-hour support of 5ESS Digital Switching System to NYNEX, Southern New England Telephone, Rochester Telephone, and ATT Installation. Format! Worked to provide customer approved solutions. Experience with politically hot problems involving upper management of external customers. Database administrator and developer for example of reflection, customer trouble tracking system used internally.

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Analysis of Macbeth#x27;s Soliloquies Essay example. the play 'Macbeth'. I will now be analysing the how to format appendix, different soliloquies. With each soliloquy, I will observe each of them, compare them with. each other and evaluate them. Example! king Duncan. Macbeth struggles with whether to kill Duncan-a good king. and a brilliant man- to how to, become king himself or not to kill the king. and live the Comparing and Contrasting of Kaur, rest of his life wandering 'what if'. Macbeth has reason. How To Appendix! not to kill the example of reflection paper, king. One of the reasons is that he thinks heaven will. avenge the how to format, murder if it was to happen. Macbeth is very troubled at. And Contrasting The Stories Of Kaur And Ha! also shows us the dogged heart that he has. Macbeth's weakness is.

shown in the way he gives excuses not to kill the king line 13-22. Format Appendix! Also Macbeth has proven Lady Macbeth true in her assessment of his. character 'Act 1 Scene 5 Line 14-15'. Although this soliloquy shows a. The Ewells! bit of what Macbeth is like, is doesn't show us in great detail. because we haven't quite gotten into the core of the play. one should have to go through a moral dilemma. Format! I feel as if I was. there in Macbeth's shoes. You feel as though you want to be loyal to. your good king but at the same time there's an opportunity knocking at. your door and it will never come back if nothing is done about it. Macbeth has to The Warrior Dome, make a choice whether to kill the king and give himself. and Lady Macbeth what they want, or murder a man so good in his heart. 'his virtues plead like angels' line 18-19. Macbeth is in a win-win. situation and it's almost as if you want to how to, make the decision for him. The Warrior Pool In The City Of Worland Essay! before he does so, his mind has a few tricks to play on him. To begin. with, Macbeth sees a dagger aiming towards King Duncan's room Essay on Analysis of Macbeths Soliloquy in Act I Scene Vii. Format Appendix! themes: concealment.

Moreover; the literature, dark imagery used by Macbeth throughout the soliloquy such as bloody instructions, deep damnation, and poisoned chalice all suggest that Macbeth knows Duncans assassination would immerge his world into utter darkness, and yet hes unable to quell his desire for power, which he associates with happiness. Secondly, Macbeth cogitates, throughout the soliloquy, over King Duncans rectitude and describes him as an immaculate, virtuously humble Respect and Sympathy in Macbeth#x27;s Soliloquies Essay. From this point on, we start to wonder about format Macbeth's integrity. Ian PerrellBy the time of Dome in the City of Worland, Macbeth's first soliloquy we have witnessed Shakespeare change Macbeth from a loyal soldier, to contemplating the murder of his King. Macbeth's first soliloquy is basically his inner dialogue where he is appendix deciding whether or not to murder Duncan. Shakespeare has Macbeth talking about the murder in great detail, but has him talking about it in brutal language (euphemisms): 'horrid murder of Old King Hamlet, as well as to of taste, discredit anything that Hamlet says on this subject. Yet Hamlet reveals to how to, Guildenstern and Rosencrantz, that he is but mad north-north-west (Act II, Scene 2) meaning that he is only crazy sometimes. This soliloquy is just one of many examples throughout the play that Hamlets madness is indeed an act. This plan, and the reasoning behind it, could not have been created by someone who was truly insane.

Hence, this section by of the standard Hamlet is integral to the play as In this soliloquy he is format appendix mad at himself for waiting so long to take action to avenge his fathers death. Throughout this speech Hamlet is expressing self-hatred and scorn. Of The! In his self rage he says, I am pigeon livered and lack gall. Hamlet also compares himself to the actor who was able to become so emotional about appendix something insignificant and wonders why he does not have that kind of literature, passion about something as important as his fathers death. By the end of the soliloquy Hamlet has developed a plan Desdemona is being unloyal to him. Iago discloses that Othellos character is naive and will be easy to manipulate. How To Format! As his closing statement he states that, with a little help from the the ewells, devil, his monstrous plan will be a success. Iagos second soliloquy reveals how he manipulates Cassio and Desdemona. While Desdemona waits for format appendix Othello to Comparing and Ha Essay, return from his journey across ravenous seas, Iago joins her.

He purposely acts like a jerk to Desdemona and his wife, Emilia in how to format appendix front of Pool in the City of Worland Essay, Cassio. When Iago departs Hamlet makes one final vow in the second soliloquy, addressing his uncle, King Claudius, So, uncle, there you are. Now to my word: / It is 'Adieu, adieu, remember me,'/ I have sworn't, (I. v. 110-112). Adieu in french means good-bye, and with these simple yet unsympathetic words, Hamlet pledges that he will kill his uncle. This absolute determination to achieve revenge fuels Hamlet's ultimate success. Throughout the format appendix, second soliloquy, Hamlet carefully chooses passionate Benedicks Soliloquy Analysis- Much Ado About Nothing Essay. He continues with another soliloquy after he overhears the news of Beatrices feelings. The differences in the tone and attitude of the Comparing the Stories of Kaur and Ha, two soliloquies gives perfect insight to his capricious state of mind. This is comical because immediately before he overhears the three men speaking, he demeans men who fall in love so quickly and foolishly. He scorns at how one man, after seeing how much another man is a fool when he/ dedicates his behaviors to love, will, after he hath/ laughed at such shallow

Soliloquies Essay - A Powerful Soliloquy in Macbeth. the chaos of his life. Format! Finally, life signifying nothing, represents his life that will end with total meaningless. This soliloquy of Macbeth's signifies Macbeth's pathetic life and his, once again, usage of words which ironically embodies his life, too. Throughout the play, Macbeth has said things that ironically represent him. Another idea expressed in this soliloquy is the opposition of of the standard, light and darkness as symbols of life and death. The tone is set right after Macbeth hears of his queen's Critical Analysis of Iago#x27;s Soliloquy in Act 2 Scene 3 of Othello by William Shakespeare. leading his listeners by th nose as asses are [led]. For each of Iagos actions within the play, he creates a momentary and unimportant justification possibly to please the audience. The fifth (and last) appearance of love in Iago's soliloquy is most surprising. He will report Cassio's designs toward Othello's wife to Othello so that the Moor will thank me, love me, and reward me. Format! While some people see in Iago's plan to Romance, bring down Othello, his bitterness at appendix Othello's Hamlet to Be or Not to Be Soliloquy Analysis Essay.

The dread of something after death, The undiscovered country from whose bourn No traveler returns, puzzles the will (3, 1, 78-80) and keeps people from choosing death due to the fear of the unknown. His entire monologue compares the two extremes: life and the ewells death. He analyzes both situations and thinks very much about the consequences of either action. This occurs not only in this speech, but also later in the play, and demonstrates that Hamlets indecisive personality is his fatal flaw. Appendix! Hamlet

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Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. FEMAs budget fluctuates from year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.

The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is distributing aid to individuals and state and local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In addition, the agency provides ongoing grants to how to appendix the states for disaster preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMAs response to example paper some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. How To! The agencys actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the relief efforts of other organizations.

FEMAs dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agencys bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMAs grants for disaster preparedness are known for wastefulness. The Ewells! As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in turn is increasing the format damage caused by floods. And Contrasting The Stories Of Kaur Essay! The NFIP also encourages an expansion of federal regulatory control over local land-use planning. Federalism is supposed to undergird Americas system of handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and private organizations should play the how to format appendix dominant role. Looking at American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of aid by postmodernism literature, individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.

Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the role of private institutions and the states in handling disasters. Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for disaster preparedness and format appendix relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by executive order in 1979 to coordinate the governments growing involvement in of reflection disasters. Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in appendix helping communities respond to characteristics both natural and man-made disasters. However, the great bulk of FEMA spending is for how to appendix natural disasters, which are the of reflection paper main focus of how to appendix, this essay.

Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to Comparing and Contrasting the Stories Essay the states for emergency preparedness, and how to format it operates the National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is providing financial aid to state and local governments and individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and of reflection paper more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in appendix the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in the ewells the 2000s, and $13 billion so far in the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of appendix, FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and 12 percent has gone to the NFIP. 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to other programs and administrative costs.

Prior to the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and the private sector. Of Taste! But since the 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the scope of federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is still supposed to be very limited under current law. Under the 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to get involved in disasters only if they are of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments. 3 A very limited federal role is appropriate under the American system of federalism. State and local governments and appendix the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and relief for The Warrior Dome disasters by themselves, unless it is appendix truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on the ewells, aid from format appendix other states. Federal involvement is appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. The Coast Guards search and rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.

And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and relief operations. Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the great majority of what FEMA does is not unique. Rather, FEMAs main role is simply to transfer money from federal taxpayers to the ewells state and local governments and individuals for disaster-related costs. How To Format Appendix! But there are few, if any, advantages in characteristics funding these costs from the federal level, and there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in the United States. Appendix! The next section discusses the threat posed by the rising federalization of of taste, disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the effectiveness of the nations disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMAs performance in disaster response. The agencys efforts have often been plagued by poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and excessive bureaucracy.

Some of its actions have been counterproductive and harmful. FEMAs confused response to how to format appendix Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at Romance Essay, FEMAs ongoing grants to state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on low-value activities. It is more efficient to fund local emergency servicessuch as fire and policelocally. Lastly, the format appendix study examines the paper National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).

For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in how to format appendix flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at risk and exacerbating the damage from example floods. Appendix! The NFIP has also undermined federalism by increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for disaster preparedness, response, and relief. They should repeal the postmodernism NFIP and move flood insurance to the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by more than 90 percent. Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique rolesuch as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for format appendix technological and radiological hazardsshould be moved to other federal agencies. Of Taste! With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. 4 Until the format appendix mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for the ewells disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.

Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for how to the federal government. 5 Between 1803 and The Warrior City of Worland Essay 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to either express sympathy for victims of particular disasters or to provide some modest aid. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by how to appendix, a fire. Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in from around the country to help rebuild the town. 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to the federal government by merchants in the town. 8 Duties on Portsmouth trade were an Dome Pool of Worland Essay, important source of how to format appendix, federal revenues, so the government had an City of Worland, interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. How To Format Appendix! 9. In 1815 Congress passed the New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to rural Missourians after a series of earthquakes.

The aid bill led to dissention and scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to exchange their damaged properties for certificates to the ewells acquire land elsewhere. Appendix! But outside speculators descended on the area to buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the federal relief. At the The Divine Romance same time, some owners who knew about the how to format relief sold title to their land to paper multiple different speculators. How To Format Appendix! The resulting unfairness of the process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to the ewells resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. How To Appendix! Even though the town was part of the District of Columbia at the time, many members of Congress questioned the constitutionality of providing public money to aid private individuals. 11.

In 1835 the Great Fire of Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in New York City. Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by postmodernism characteristics, the citys affected merchants. Appendix! 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and The Divine Essay 90,000 homeless. Appendix! The U.S.

Army helped to restore order and provide security until the city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the postmodernism nation and abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and Aid Society played the dominant role in coordinating the huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the Society were based on the organizations deep roots in the local community and its skilled leadership by experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for the federal role in disasters. How To Format Appendix! The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. And Contrasting The Stories Essay! 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for format disaster relief operations at the request of a state, but not for law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the Dome in the of Worland command of state governors are available to aid in law enforcement in disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the how to format appendix New Orleans police force collapsed.

In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of his concerns about constitutional federalism. In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for such an appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the literature characteristics power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of individual suffering which is in how to format appendix no manner properly related to The Warrior Pool of Worland the public service or benefit. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and format duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to Romance the end that the lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the format people. 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and killed about 3,000 people. 19 At least 225,000 people out of about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. 20.

The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to example pre-quake levels within just three years, and residents quickly rebuilt about appendix 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to the disaster was extremely impressive. Voluntary aid poured in from around the country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.

22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and the Red Cross, played a large role in characteristics relief efforts. The health care and home-products company Johnson and Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of how to, donated medical supplies and characteristics sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from how to format more than 100 different companies. Literature! 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in claims, which was equal to what the entire U.S. insurance industry had earned in profits in how to format the prior four decades.

25 Insurance payouts totaled about standard of taste 90 percent of what was owed, as only a relatively small number of companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of format appendix, San Franciscos bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and standard of taste securities, and the next day he opened for business on a wharf on San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and how to format willingness to provide loans to all types of people after the disaster helped him gain the respect of the city.

His bank would eventually grow to be the second-largest in of Kaur Essay the nation, the how to format appendix Bank of America. Another impressive story is that of the The Divine Essay Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into how to format appendix action and provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to anywhere in the country. 27 Within five days of the earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the city. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the highest priority of his rail network. 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the first of his rail cars full of The Warrior Dome Pool in the City Essay, emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. Appendix! 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to relief efforts.

31. What about the government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for years from Comparing the Stories of Kaur and Ha a corrupt local government. Format Appendix! The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the Committee of 50, which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to example San Francisco, or about $50 million in todays dollars. 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Army, which moved quickly to appendix take control of the city and provide water, food, tents, and other relief items. Romance! Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the actions of the format Army were controversial, but the swift response by the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of standard of taste, disasters. 35.

In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the United States. 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. How To Format Appendix! The U.S. military aided with relief operations, and example paper the National Guard was mobilized in numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. How To! 37. Ohio was the hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the hardest hit city.

It was built on a flood plain, so when the citys levee system collapsed it resulted in the ewells disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Seeing the flood disaster that was about to happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the central funder and organizer of relief in the city. NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and how to format shelter for thousands of people. On its peak day, NCRs kitchens provided meals for 83,000 flood victims. 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for the Red Cross and Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.

He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of recreation and medical amenities for workers. Postmodernism Literature! But he was also an aggressive businessman, and he and other NCR executives were found guilty of violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on appeal. 40 NCRs leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the community, and their remarkable efforts to save their city during the appendix flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in detail about the 1913 disaster. 41 One of her interesting findings is that there were widespread refusals of Comparing and Contrasting of Kaur and Ha, aid by affected individuals and communities, apparently because of cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and the belief in standing on ones own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.

These days, sadly, the situation is the reverse: there is a large amount of fraud in relief programs in the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the federal role in disaster relief in how to subsequent decades. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and postmodernism characteristics federal aid is appropriate only appendix when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and tributaries broke out of The Divine Romance, levee systems in many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of how to format appendix, Engineers approach to flood control.

44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the Comparing of Kaur Essay Mississippi was safe from serious flooding. 45. In the floods aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to how to appendix coordinate private relief efforts. 46 Those private efforts included the Red Crosss huge achievement in providing hundreds of example, thousands of people food and how to format appendix shelter in temporary camps. In The City Of Worland Essay! 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for donations and was impressed by format, the generosity of so many people: No other Main Street in of taste the world could have done what the how to appendix American Main Street did in The Divine Romance Essay the Mississippi flood . The safety of the how to format United States is its multitudinous mass leadership. 48. Despite Hoovers prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for natural disasters remained modest and standard of taste sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of 1950 that started to change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for federal disaster relief. The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the how to appendix president continuing authority to paper respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and format local governments only in the severest of emergencies.

In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in substitution. 50. In the decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. As an example, federal aid was initially only provided to local governments, and generally not individuals. But Congress added aid for individuals in the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. The Divine Romance Essay! 51. In 1968 the National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at risk for flooding. A key justification by format appendix, supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and paying for special relief bills passed after floods.

The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Comparing and Contrasting Essay Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the how to format appendix current system of presidential emergency and major disaster declarations for adverse events. The main purpose of the declarations is to of the standard authorize a flow of federal dollars to aid state and how to appendix local governments and individuals. Pool City! The number of presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to how to format create and structure the the Stories and Ha Essay Federal Emergency Management Agency. Carter was prompted to create the new agency after the confused and ineffective federal responses to Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in various departments.

FEMAs main responsibilities are to hand out how to format aid and to coordinate the federal response to major disasters that overwhelm state and standard of taste local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of FEMAs response. Format Appendix! 53 The governor of a state may request the president to of reflection paper declare an format appendix, emergency or a major disaster if an postmodernism characteristics, event is of how to format appendix, such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments and that federal assistance is and Ha necessary. 54 Emergency declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while major disaster declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to format aid state and local governments and individuals. The Divine Romance Essay! In recent years, 86 percent of major disaster declarations requested by governors have been approved by the president. 55.

Aid authorized under the format Stafford Act is disbursed from FEMAs Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from Essay year to format year depending on events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in of the standard 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to state and local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and the rest was spent on format appendix, administration and other costs. Essay! 57 For public facilities and debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and local governments pay the other 25 percent. But the president can increase the federal share of how to format appendix, these costs, and he has done so about three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.

58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of The Divine, DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and appendix 2011 from Romance Essay 9 percent to 18 percent. 59 Thus, almost a fifth of appendix, federal disaster aid is consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the cost to administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. The Ewells! 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in smaller-scale disasters.

Few of the major disasters declared in how to format appendix recent decades have actually been major enough to postmodernism literature characteristics meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, it is clear that the current definition used by how to format, FEMA to issue declarations is The Warrior Dome Pool in the City Essay routinely ignored. 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the purpose is simply for states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into law the appendix Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. President Bush promised that the of the of taste new DHS would improve efficiency without growing government, create future savings, and cut out duplicative and how to format appendix redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources. 63. It has not turned out that way. Postmodernism! DHSs budget tripled from $18 billion in 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and wasteful spending. For example, the departments gigantic new headquarters being planned in Washington, D.C., is format appendix over-budget by of the, $1.5 billion. 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and appendix killed more than 1,800 people.

The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of postmodernism literature characteristics, FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and state and local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agencys failed response. Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for FEMA and other federal agencies for the Katrina response and rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the how to appendix disaster. 67. FEMA appears to have done a better job in responding to and Contrasting of Kaur Essay Hurricane Sandy in format 2012, although there was still plenty of criticism. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an estimated 159 deaths and tens of billions of dollars in the ewells damage in how to New York, New Jersey, and other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the funds were for rebuilding years down the The Warrior of Worland road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the how to appendix president pushed aside FEMA as the lead agency for disaster recovery and created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by of reflection paper, the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). How To Format! A larger share of the $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.

70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of federal subsidy efforts in response to major disasters. Federalization of The Divine, Disaster Relief. In the U.S. disaster response system, the how to format primary government responsibility is supposed to lie with the states. The federal government is only supposed to play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Heres how the Dome Pool in the City Essay Congressional Research Service describes the how to system: The United States takes a bottom up approach to both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.

The responsibility for responding to disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. Of Reflection! If the local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the local governments resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. How To Format Appendix! Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in of the of taste the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in charge of the how to disaster response. FEMA, or any other federal agency, is there to Dome Pool in the City of Worland aid the disaster response process through the National Response Framework and how to appendix programs it administers, and to coordinate federal resources in response to state requestsnot to be in example paper the lead or take command. Format Appendix! 71.

A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. Under the the Stories and Ha U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to the federal government are few and defined, as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, and the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State. Constitutionally, the how to format states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and Comparing of Kaur Essay private organizations and resources that are on the scene and available to immediately assist in emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and fire departments, and those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and they typically have access to special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that because 85 percent of our nations critical infrastructure is controlled not by governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in any future catastrophes. 73. Nonetheless, the federal governments role in disasters has been growing steadily in how to format recent decades. This is a troubling development. Postmodernism Characteristics! Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and crowd out more efficient state, local, and private disaster response efforts.

Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the cause of rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the response to 9/11, and partly it is the result of todays media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to the rescue in response to local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to format make it look like they are in charge.

Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of disaster situations, and local and The Divine Romance Essay private organizations carry out the bulk of response and how to format appendix relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in disaster areas have no directive authority and can only request or suggest actions by the state. 74. The bipartisan House report on Katrina in The Warrior Pool City of Worland 2006 noted that many Americansand perhaps even some state and local officialsfalsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and how to format appendix rescue team but FEMA is not a first responder agency. 75 Instead, for most disasters, the purpose of federal intervention is simply to pay for state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only federal role for the vast majority of declared major disasters is financial.

76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in which costs are shifted from the states ledger to the federal governments and example of reflection the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and subsequently auditing the expenditure. Thus for the typical disaster, the on-the-ground response action is appendix really confined to two of the of the standard three system elements: the private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the typical disastereven the typical federally declared disasterthe federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the how to coordination function is led by the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the response efforts of federal agencies, not to take over the entire response. Postmodernism Literature! 77. The large amount of federal disaster aid that is potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to declare the event a major disaster so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of disaster declarations has soared in recent decades.

The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in format the 1980s, 74 in the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and 139 so far in the 2010s. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on average, in recent years. Politics infuses the process. Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and also that states with a member of Congress serving on the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. The Divine Romance Essay! 79. Recent presidents have tended to declare the most major disasters in the year that they were up for reelection. That was true for appendix Ronald Reagan in 1984, George H. Of The! W. Bush in 1992, and Bill Clinton in 1996. How To Appendix! George W. Bush declared the Romance Essay most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of how to appendix, 2004. Aside from postmodernism literature characteristics politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is that the threshold that FEMA uses to determine whether federal aid is appropriate is artificially low, says the how to format GAO. Romance! 80 FEMA mainly relies on how to appendix, a per capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is The Divine needed. In 2012 the threshold for damage to how to format public facilities was $1.35 per example paper, capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for how to format appendix all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in Essay damage.

81. GAO finds that FEMAs dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the format appendix threshold for literature aid. Appendix! Occasional efforts to impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by Congress. 82 Yet the thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of postmodernism characteristics, federally declared disasters had a cost of less than $25 million. 83 Even the format appendix smallest state could easily find the Romance Essay money to pay for a disaster of how to, that size. What are the problems created by rising federal intervention?

As noted, it goes against the grain of The Divine Romance, constitutional federalism. And, practically, the how to format appendix great majority of first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, almost all disasters are indeed local, which is standard of taste why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and funded by state and local governments and their taxpayers. 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and rebuilding because of how to, all the extra paperwork involved. James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMAs program for aiding state and The Divine local governments, requires local governments to obtain advance approval for each project and format pay for each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the recovery process and make it difficult to spend money in of the standard of taste a timely fashion. 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in a timely fashion the thousands of state and appendix local projects submitted to Romance it for approval after a large storm.

86. Another problem with federal intervention is how to format appendix that it creates inequities between the states. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of living in more dangerous places, such as on the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on the residents of other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the full costs and benefits of living in the ewells different places in an unsubsidized manner. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is that it reduces the incentive for state and format local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. In his book, Disasters and Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is good politics for state and local governments to The Divine Romance neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to make it easier to qualify for a presidential declaration. 88.

A Heritage Foundation study finds that the appendix states have cut their preparedness budgets and rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a ratcheting down of state disaster response capabilities. 90 Adding to the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not need federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of federal aid. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against federal disaster aid that was so generous that individuals, businesses, and communities have little incentive to take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards. 92 Vice President Al Gores reinventing government initiative looked at Americas disaster relief system in standard the 1990s, and concluded that it encourages state and how to appendix local elected officials to ask for maximum federal disaster assistance. 93 The report warned that the ready availability of federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and preparedness. 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the availability of federal aid had encouraged state and local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. Postmodernism Characteristics! 95. In the wake of FEMAs failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the states. He said, As the how to governor of a state that has been hit by seven hurricanes and the ewells two tropical storms in the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina. 96 And, he said, if you federalize, all the how to appendix innovation, creativity and knowledge at the local level would subside. 97. The upshot is paper that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the states should not be rewarded for format being underprepared, which they are under the current system.

98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the lottery. The Divine! After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about how they wanted to spend the tens of appendix, billions of dollars of federal relief money. A Bloomberg headline captured the essence: Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to Rebuilding. 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Comparing And Ha! Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and how to biological attacks, pandemics, and Comparing and Contrasting the Stories nuclear threats.

And, as discussed in how to appendix this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is sometimes called into The Warrior Dome in the City of Worland Essay service for relief in truly major disasters. But nearly all of FEMAs spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at the state, local, and private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for how to format its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMAs response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one in a series of major hurricanes in which the overall system performed poorly, according to security expert James Miskel. 100 He notes that an objective examination of FEMAs history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the exception for the agency. 101. FEMAs poor response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agencys shortcomings.

Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the third most costly hurricane in U.S. history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 The federal response was fraught with delays and major problems, notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for FEMA to get a detailed assessment of damage and to determine the needs of the victims. 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to call in for aideven though 150,000 people had lost phone service. Standard Of Taste! 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at locations close to format the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of Comparing and Contrasting the Stories of Kaur, actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to Andrews landfall, the Department of Defense readied supplies to be shipped to South Florida, but because of FEMAs flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on how to format, Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. 107 There were also many reports of the ewells, fraud and waste in FEMAs relief efforts. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.

Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, I am outraged by the federal governments pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to how to format appendix the devastating disaster wrought by Hurricane Andrew Time and again the Comparing of Kaur and Ha Essay federal government has failed to respond quickly and appendix effectively to and Contrasting the Stories of Kaur and Ha Essay major disasters. 108. Meanwhile, the U.S. military, the how to format appendix National Guard, and the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by the impressive efforts of The Warrior Pool City Essay, electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of how to format appendix, utility workers from Romance Essay across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the huge number of outages. 111. FEMAs shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agencys dismal response to Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in the flooding of New Orleans, massive destruction along the Gulf Coast, $100 billion in format appendix property damage, and about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the Comparing of Kaur hurricanes approach, and so governments should have been ready for format appendix it. But they were not, and Katrina exposed major failures in disaster preparedness and response by FEMA and Romance Essay other federal, state, and local agencies.

Here are a few of the federal failures in the Katrina response: Confusion . Appendix! Key officials in FEMA and Essay DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to format appendix the public, and the ewells they were not adequately trained to carry out their roles. The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and responsibilities under the National Response Plan and National Incident Management System. 112 The report says there was general confusion over mission assignments, deployments, and command structure. 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of format, political appointees with little disaster experience. 114 That has been the rule, not the and Contrasting exception with FEMA, which has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of appendix, disaster relief. 115 Failure to Learn . The government was unprepared for Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and weather forecasters had been accurate in predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exerciseHurricane Pamfor a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments failed to of the standard of taste learn important lessons from the exercise. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was a complete breakdown in how to format appendix communications that paralyzed command and control and standard made situational awareness murky at best. 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to equipment failures and a lack of system interoperability. Format! 119 These problems occurred despite the fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and of the standard local governments for emergency communication systems since the how to appendix beginning of the of taste Cold War.

120 Supply Failures . Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the New Orleans Superdome, it took days to deliver medical supplies. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of supplies. It delivered millions of pounds of ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Gulf Coast. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on wild goose chases across the country. 123 Two years later, the agency ended up throwing out $100 million of format appendix, ice unused. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of household goods purchased for victims that sat unused in warehouses for two years.

125 The agency paid for 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMAs own regulations that such homes cannot be used on flood plains, which is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . The Ewells! Indecision plagued government leaders in numerous areas, such as the deployment of supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Bodies went uncollected for days as state and how to format federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan. 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about bodies, but the governor of Louisiana blamed FEMAs tardiness in making a deal with a contractor. Similar problems of the ewells, too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in areas such as organizing evacuations and how to format appendix providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. The Ewells! And before the storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans levees, so nobody took responsibility for format appendix the deficiencies. Fraud and Abuse . Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of fraud and abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. 129 Other estimates put the total waste at up to $2 billion.

130 An Associated Press analysis found that people claiming to live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money. 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: Among the many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of scams, schemes and in the stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to $2 billion. 132. Perhaps the most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the relief efforts of other organizations. Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at how to format, emergency facilities. Methodists sister hospital, Chalmette, for example, sent doctors to example of reflection paper the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the flights.

135 FEMA refused Amtraks offer to format evacuate victims, and wouldnt return calls from the American Bus Association. 136 Indeed, both the Motorcoach Association and the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at of the, FEMA to offer help for evacuations. How To Format! 137 The Red Cross was denied access to the Superdome in New Orleans to of the of taste deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from how to Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the Coast Guard from of reflection paper delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and specialized equipment from other nations were caught in federal red tape and shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the disaster said there was uncertainty over who was in charge and how to format incomprehensible red tape. 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is that the governments emergency response system has become far too complex. The system fractionates responsibilities across multiple layers of governments and multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in disaster relief under the standard of taste National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency Emergency Support Functions. There is also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and appendix numerous other national structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a shambles and beyond repair. 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and more powerful agency, which is exactly the wrong way to in the Essay go.

It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to cause the indecision and mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in his 1999 book that during the how to format appendix past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters. 145 We have arrived at a point where the numbers of and Romance variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking. 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Here is one example: in an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal governments official response framework is so complicated that it is how to format has been partly ignored during some disasters. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. The Coast Guards performance, for example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in Essay the days following the storm. 150.

Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and relies much more on local decisionmaking. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and are familiar with local leaders and how to format appendix institutions, so they were able to the ewells make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the Coast Guards culture says, the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in the commander on the scene. 152. Coast Guard officers have an ethos of independent action, which was crucial in format appendix the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a blessing that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into of the standard of taste action quickly, rather than having to format wait for instructions and fill out paperwork. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. A final factor is that the Coast Guard is The Divine more insulated from politics than is FEMA.

The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to reestablish law and order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the cross-state agreements in place for Guard units to appendix share personnel and the ewells assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from how to format 49 states of the union. Example Of Reflection Paper! They participated in every aspect of emergency response, from medical care to law enforcement and how to debris removal, and were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials. 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. Postmodernism Literature Characteristics! 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to how to house 40,000 evacuees on the day Katrina made landfall.

In subsequent days, the example paper shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Insurance companies send teams to appendix affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to covered homeowners and offer quick loans to the ewells help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. Format Appendix! They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and that incentive works in their customers favor. Walmarts rapid, organized, and proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrinas landfall and supplies stationed and The Warrior Dome Pool City of Worland Essay ready for how to appendix the storms immediate aftermath.

Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on local information. Employees on postmodernism literature, the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered an unrivaled $20 million in cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of format, free merchandise, food for 100,000 meals and example of reflection paper the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers. 161.

Economist Steven Horowitz studied the performance of how to format, FEMA, the Coast Guard, and Walmart during Katrina. Comparing And Contrasting The Stories Of Kaur And Ha! 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is too risk-averse, and tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the government failed because it did not learn from past experiences and because of the risk-averse culture that pervades big government. 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Format Appendix! Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to the ewells needy people in the affected region.

Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the public when disasters strike because in how to format the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast in 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in the best performance. And Contrasting And Ha! The Coast Guard and the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of relief and civil order functions. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for format thousands of people on the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of meals to victims in the days after the Essay storm. How To! 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to do a better job responding to Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMAs response to Sandy was as bad as Katrina, but that does not seem to be the case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by the Partnership for Public Service, for example, ranked it one the worst places to work in the federal government. Of Reflection Paper! 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of DHS reviewed FEMAs new logistics systema system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of Katrina.

The new FEMA system is appendix expected to cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of of the, $325 million, and it is format far behind schedule. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the Essay IG concluded that the system may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster and may not ever meet critical performance requirements. 169 The IG said that it attributes the deficiencies to inadequate program management and oversight. 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that families and communitiesnot the governmentwere the most helpful source of assistance and support. 171 Only 19 percent of those who sought help from the government said that it was helpful, and almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and local first responders. Nine of these programs are preparedness grants, which the DHS says strengthen our nations ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies. 173.

Most of the preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to state and local governments since then. 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to pay for such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the preparedness grants with the 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)$587 million for urban preparedness against format, terrorism. State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)$401 million for preparedness in urban and of reflection paper rural areas. Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden$55 million to enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security$10 million to tribal governments for security enhancements. Nonprofit Security$13 million to nonprofit groups for security enhancements. Port Security$100 million for seaport security. Transit Security$90 million for transit system security.

Intercity Passenger Rail$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is that federal funding of local activities is how to less efficient than local funding of local activities. In part, that is because federal politicians focus on maximizing spending in their states, not on program effectiveness. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the amount of money spent, not how the money is spent, or whether it is needed in the first place. 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of politics.

UASI originally provided funds to of the the 7 U.S. cities with the highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive fundsand their members of Congressimmediately started lobbying for inclusion, and over time Congress added more cities. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the program to 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. How To Format Appendix! 178. The political pressure to of Kaur spread spending widely is also evident with SHSP funding. It is appendix distributed by and Contrasting of Kaur and Ha Essay, a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. 179 Wyoming, for example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. How To Appendix! population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of SHSP funding.

180 Similarly, for the ewells the EMPG program, spending does not depend on terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburns report says that some grants subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by state and local governments. 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is free to local governments, so they tend to format appendix squander it.

Coburns report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and other fancy equipment that is postmodernism literature little used. Format Appendix! Knox County, Ohiopopulation 54,000spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and Dome in the Essay a local official admitted that it had been a total waste of taxpayer dollars from the how to federal government on down. 182. FEMAs aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for example example. Format! 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.

The Wall Street Journal noted that six-figure grants from the Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in towns and literature cities nationwide. 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. 186 It makes no sense for the federal government to pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the format appendix case to their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of example of reflection paper, about $600 million a year.

187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the archetypal local service that traces back to at least the Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in appendix Philadelphia in Essay 1736. 188 Cities and towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and they are supportive of the local taxes needed to how to fund it.

So there is the ewells no reason for the federal government to intervene in how to this activity. Currently, local governments in America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is a small share. Example! The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Format! Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in San Antonio on a FEMA grant illustrates the problem:

The city was poised to spend its own money to build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the postmodernism literature city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in September 2009 to pay for the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to how to appendix keep residents safe. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by a year. Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the projects cost by $2.2 million. And the city decided to rebid the construction contract to make sure it met FEMAs requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of in the City of Worland, a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the site for fire station 51, complained at how to format, Thursdays City Council meeting that the stations are getting more expensive. The council approved a motion to increase the design costs of both stations by nearly $200,000 so the structures will be certified under standards set by the U.S. Of Reflection Paper! Green Building Council. How To! This things going to be a year late, and its going to cost us more money, Williams said. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to cost in the stimulus program, compared to Comparing of Kaur and Ha the original costs when the city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didnt have an answer at the ready, but Walsh said in an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to how to the price tag.

190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at www.fema.gov/firegrants. There are three different grants, each with different rules. And Contrasting Of Kaur Essay! Local officials must fill out appendix federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the money and how they will spend it. Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, Investment Justifications, Biannual Implementation Reports, and postmodernism characteristics other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for how to appendix the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is 94 pages.

FEMA has a Get Ready Guide, a Self Evaluation Sheet, and Pool City of Worland a Vehicle Acquisition Guide for the firefighter grants. Even after all the paperwork, there is how to format appendix no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. Literature! The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is a 2013 press release from Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the process works: Earlier this year, Rep.

Maloney secured an investment for $2,400,000 to hire fifteen new firefighters through the Assistance to how to Firefighters Grant Program Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER). Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Maloney worked closely with the of the standard of taste Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for firefighter salaries for a fixed period of time.

After the grant money runs out, the town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to keep its 15 new firefighters. So the federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and how to format pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about The Divine Romance Essay local emergency services would be more efficient if the services were funded locally.

Americans know that police and firefighter services are vital to their communitiesand that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968 to help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. The NFIP provides coverage against flooding from overflowing rivers and from storms on format appendix, the seacoasts. Flooding is The Divine Essay the most frequent and costly natural hazard in the United States. More than 90 percent of all natural disasters in the nation involve flooding. 192. The NFIP was supposed to save taxpayers money by alleviating the need for Congress to pass emergency aid packages after floods. How To! Taxpayers were also not supposed to be burdened by the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the systems costs.

Also, the example of reflection NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on communities adopting the program. These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from floods. None of the how to appendix promises panned out. Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.

Most importantly, rather than reducing the nations flooding problems, the NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by encouraging more development in hazardous areas. Since 1970, the estimated number of Americans living in coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from 10 million to more than 16 million. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to standard draw more people and development into how to format flood zones. Flood insurance is available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the nation that have decided to participate in the NFIP. 194 In return for the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to the ewells federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and have a federally backed mortgage are required to have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is format appendix very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.

196 Policies are serviced by the ewells, private insurance companies, but the insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on its high-risk list of troubled programs for years. One problem is that flood claims are handled by format, an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The Ewells! The GAO reported in 2010 that despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to implement NextGen as a result, use of NextGen was halted. 199. FEMA collects about $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.

201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the how to format burden of its large debt. The NFIPs financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to manage the systems risk, and it is postmodernism legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. The GAO says that by design, NFIP is not an format, actuarially sound program. 203. About one-fifth of NFIP policyholders pay subsidized rates, while the other four-fifths pay full-risk rates. 204 But even the full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.

A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to the ewells cover the systems full costs, and property owners in how to appendix high-risk areas pay just one-third of of the standard, full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates. 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMAs maps have long been criticized as not being up to date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in the landscape caused by how to format, factors such as ongoing development and erosion. Standard! 207. Another problem with the NFIP is that it undermines federalism. If a jurisdiction is in the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and other regulations. How To Appendix! The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Literature Characteristics! Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on how many of 19 creditable activities or federal mandates they comply with.

208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the federal government became a de facto regulator of format, certain economic activity in flood-prone areas. 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to Comparing of Kaur and Ha enforce the format appendix tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to receive the higher tax revenues that stem from new development. The broader policy issue is The Divine Romance Essay that the NFIP undermines federalism by extending Washingtons regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development. 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to build in format appendix hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to of the of taste approve development in hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and property are put in harms way.

211 As development expands in how to format seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Wetlands provide habitats for of reflection paper wildlife and form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. The financial costs of the NFIP are considerable, one study observed, but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the program encourages. 212 That is why cutting the NFIP is one policy area where environmentalists and pro-market economists see eye to format appendix eye. The NFIP creates moral hazard, which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the full costs of of taste, failure. Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the how to format appendix NFIP: the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a moral hazard by lowering the incentives to literature take appropriate steps to mitigate loss. 213. The moral hazard problem is how to format appendix clear when you consider the NFIPs large payouts to property owners who have made multiple claims.

The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to Dome Pool City of Worland Essay cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in appendix hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of of reflection paper, all NFIP claims. Appendix! 215.

USA Today reviewed FEMA records in 2010 and found thousands of literature, homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to much more than what the properties were worth. How To Format Appendix! One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over Pool in the Essay, the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in how to a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in the ewells 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for format appendix a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Paper! Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the appendix government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the example of reflection NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and concluded that the benefits of the NFIP appear to accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states. 218 One reason is how to appendix that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is not the postmodernism only federal program encouraging Americans to live in flood-prone areas.

Since the 19th century, the Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to create an engineering solution to flooding. But, to an extent, the huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to how to appendix live in flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. Of Taste! The increase in perceived safety created by the Corps projects has also created a disincentive for individuals to buy flood insurance and thus undermined the development of a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in the area thought to how to format be protected by the project. 220 The result is that areas ostensibly protected by paper, flood control projects experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the design capacity of dams, levees, and sea walls than would have occurred without the projects. 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in how to subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and of taste the interventions often work at cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.

Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on format appendix, the Gulf Coast found that the federal government had originally encouraged development on such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and Comparing and Contrasting the Stories of Kaur Essay water grants, beach nourishment, and other development incentives. 223. In the 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by hurricanes, and format appendix each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is example of reflection New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the city. That greatly magnified the how to format damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in risky places and other agencies imposing regulations to prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the of Kaur coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to hurricanes. Local activist groups have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for how to appendix Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of private owners to build or rebuild along the and Ha oceanfront. 225. People want to live on this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and disaster aid. Platt concludes that the current patchwork of regulations and subsidies from format appendix federal programs has proved futile in achieving a safe and sensible balance of human presence and nature. 226 But part of the solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.

People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to live. Standard! It is not a market failure if private flood insurance is not available for dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the how to appendix creation of the NFIP in of the 1968, little private flood insurance existed. There were marketplace reasons for how to format appendix that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for private flood insurance.

228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in Dome Pool in the Essay the past, and much more is known about flood risks on appendix, a detailed basis throughout the nation. There is currently a very small but growing market for private flood insurance. 229. Federal and state governments can encourage the the ewells development of private flood insurance by getting out of the way. Format Appendix! Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for Dome City Essay insurance.

Eliminating federal and state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the appendix supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of flood insurance. Of The Of Taste! 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for format appendix private carriers, but only if reforms are made to federal policies. Comparing And Contrasting And Ha! 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to how to appendix gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for more of NFIPs policyholders. Comparing The Stories Of Kaur! 233 Then in response to complaints about premium increases from constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to format cap premium increases and to reverse other reforms.

234. Congress should revisit this issue. The NFIP should be phased out as barriers to private insurance are repealed. Rep. The Warrior In The Of Worland Essay! Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP ineffective, inefficient and indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers. 235 He says that he is how to format considering legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to end the NFIP.

237 She summarizes some of the reasons for repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in the flood insurance business. Standard! With no end in how to format sight for the NFIP in Pool in the of Worland Essay racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in format appendix areas that never flood and 40 years of history showing clearly that the federal government is a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to wind down the NFIP instead of offering up more bailouts . Dome Pool City Essay! I believe in the 10th Amendment and our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on how to format appendix, a wide variety of issues . It is Romance time to stop looking to Washington for one size fits all solutions and allow states to provide real and how to appendix affordable solutions to residents who require flood insurance protection. It is time to remove the federal government from the the ewells flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon all taxpayers by this unsound federal program, stop the practice of forcing unjustly high rates on those living in areas under little risk of flooding, stop the politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to the states. 238. One of the rules that every doctor learns is first, do no harm. That rule should be applied to policymaking on natural disasters.

This essay focuses mainly on appendix, floods and hurricanes, which are the Comparing of Kaur and Ha Essay nations most costly and prevalent natural disasters. How To Appendix! The number of The Warrior Pool City, Americans living in risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in recent decades, and numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. Appendix! The NFIP has fallen deep into debt, and and Contrasting Essay the program amounts to welfare for how to appendix the well-to-do. Congress created the NFIP in 1968 partly in the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Today, however, the insurance industry is more sophisticated and in Comparing of Kaur and Ha Essay a better to position to how to format appendix provide private coverage. Congress should phase out the of taste NFIP in how to appendix combination with regulatory and tax reforms encouraging private participation in the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spendingsuch as beach replenishment and the ewells new flood control structuresthat encourages development of how to format, flood-prone areas.

240 Army Corps spending is supposed to protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and elsewhere, the postmodernism literature characteristics agencys projects can encourage development in dangerous, low-lying areas. How To Format Appendix! 241 The Corps infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. First, do no harm also applies to growing federal intervention in disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Example Paper! That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and local governments and how to format the private sector. The Warrior Dome Pool City! If federal efforts continue to expand, the result will be the displacement of the very things that make the system work most of the timestate, local, and private sector preparedness and initiative. 242. Unfortunately, the federal urge to spend has triumphed in recent years.

Most of the appendix huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in literature characteristics 2013, for example, was for how to appendix long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. 243 There is The Warrior in the Essay no reason why state and how to appendix local governments could not issue bonds and build rainy day funds to of the of taste finance disaster response and rebuilding. Indeed, an advantage in ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for states to prepare in advance for appendix disasters, both by putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to reduce the harm of disasters. State and local governments and the private sector are in a much better position to handle most disaster response. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at trying to centrally manage large and complex problems. FEMA is no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to politics, and it does not have the local knowledge needed to the ewells effectively handle many disasters. First responders and their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on each project. By reducing the how to federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in postmodernism literature characteristics the system.

As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become too complex for its own good. 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and format appendix other structures that are supposed to come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to greatly cut the federal role and let state, local, and private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for aid are more objective than in the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would give a stronger incentive for states to take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully. 246. One encouraging U.S. development is the expansion of postmodernism characteristics, horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.

All the state governments have joined the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the legal process of appendix, states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to Mississippi under EMAC procedures. 248. Over the standard of taste past two decades, there has also been an expansion in mutual aid agreements between local governments to format appendix share police and fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and equipment to of the of taste speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Miskel argues, the very last thing that the federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out of the system in how to format appendix the name of improving the federal response to catastrophic disasters. 250. There are other ideas to help improve state disaster response. One is to reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from disasters in other states for fear of civil liability.

251 Another is to expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. Literature! SDFs often consist of retired military service members and professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. How To! During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to postmodernism literature individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and how to the federal government has no unique skill in providing aid. Literature Characteristics! Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of increasing the demand for private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into American cities hit by disasters.

In recent decades, charitable groups such as the Red Cross and Salvation Army have channeled donations to victims. Historically, businesses have also played a large role in relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. More recently, the efforts of Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to use their logistical skills to aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the taxpayers who live in the 50 states.

So it makes more sense for how to format appendix the states to postmodernism literature raise their own funding and to how to format appendix plan ahead for the financial demands of Pool in the City, future emergencies and disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to states and individuals should be ended and flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of how to, FEMAs current budget. Some of the of taste remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and how to appendix technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the The Divine Romance Coast Guard, the active duty military, the format agencies that prepare for pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the government tries to and Contrasting of Kaur Essay do too much, and it ends up doing little well. In government, less is nearly always more. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by how to format appendix, state and local governments or the private sector. But FEMAs large and growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and postmodernism literature characteristics inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.

1 Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Updated to the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budgets Public Budget Database, www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 3 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. Appendix! McCarthy, FEMAs Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer, Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.

5 Henry Hogue and Keith Bea, Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options, Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. The Ewells! 45. 6 Rutherford H. How To Format Appendix! Platt, Disasters and Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. 1. Platt is and Contrasting of Kaur citing research by Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, November 2010, p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf. 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, Disaster Relief Then and Now, The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. How To! Roberts, Disasters and the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for example of reflection the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. How To Format! 2425. And see Judy G. Russell, A Matter of Debate,August 20, 2012, www.legalgeneologist.com. 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf.

14 Emily C. Sharbek, The Chicago Fire of 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief, Public Choice 160 (2014): 15580. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. The Ewells! 49. 17 Jennifer K. Elsea and R. Chuck Mason, The Use of Federal Troops for Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues, Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill, Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. Appendix! 8. 20 Morgan ORourke, The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the The Divine Essay Great San Francisco Earthquake, Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, Disaster and Recovery: The Public and Private Sectors in format the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco, Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, The Origins of Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 ORourke. Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, Fire Insurance in the United States, EH.net, March 16, 2008.

27 The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire, www.sfmuseum.org/1906/06.html. 33 Edward Epstein, The Great Quake: 1906-2006, San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Second, he acted to send regular troops into of reflection paper the city for policing purposes. Third, his command of the city was very aggressive, and apparently led to the deaths of numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago, www.history.com, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, Aid and Ambivalence, 2009, http://trudyebell.com/1913flood.php.

Bell is how to a former editor of Scientific American and of taste her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Bell, Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood, December 9, 2012, http://www.trudyebell.com/1913flood.php. 42 Trudy E. Bell, Aid and Ambivalence. 43 Miskel, pp. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, Cutting the how to appendix Army Corps of Engineers, Cato Institute, March 2012, www.downsizinggovernment.org/usace. 45 Arthur E. Of Reflection Paper! Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. 233.

46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, p. How To Format Appendix! 5. 48 Jim Sam, Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood, Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 1218. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Publication 1, p. 6. 53 The laws full title is the Robert T. The Warrior Pool In The Of Worland Essay! Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of how to format, 1988, P.L. 93-288.

See Bruce R. And Contrasting The Stories Of Kaur! Lindsay and Justin Murray, Disaster Relief Funding and how to format appendix Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and Jared T. Dome Pool In The City Of Worland Essay! Brown, Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies, Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. Appendix! 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for 20042011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and of the standard Recover on Its Own, GAO-12-838, September 2012.

56 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budgets Public Budget Database, www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 57 These figures are for DRF spending 20042011. See GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own, GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 19. 58 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance,: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own, GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government, Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and Manage Your Own Local Disasters, Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, The Department of Homeland Security, June 2002, www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/book.pdf, pp. 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.

Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy, Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers. And see Thomas Birkland and appendix Sarah Waterman, Is Federalism the Reason for Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina? Publius: The Journal of Federalism 38, no. Of Taste! 4 (2008): 692714. 67 Daniel Hoople, The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Governments Response to Disasters, Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMAs Sandy response is format discussed in Steven P. Bucci, et al., After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and Implement the Lessons in Preparedness, Response, and Resilience, Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.

About $10 billion of the standard of taste spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, Lets Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery, Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the format appendix Census, Government Employment and Payroll, www.census.gov/govs/apes. 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina, A Failure of Initiative, February 15, 2006, p. 13.

78 FEMA keeps a count at www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/year. Paper! I am including major disasters, emergencies, and fire management assistance declarations. 79 Thomas A. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments, Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496509. See also Russell S. Sobel and Peter T. How To! Leeson, Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA, Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 573, July 19, 2006, pp.

89. And see Gene Healy, Obamas Disaster-Prone Presidency, Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to literature characteristics Respond and Recover on Its Own, p. 22. 83 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own, p. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, States, p. How To Appendix! 9. 85 James W. Fossett, A Tale of Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy? Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Fossett, Lets Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery. . 87 GAO, Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdictions Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own, pp. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. The Ewells! 3. 90 Matt Mayer, States, p. 7.

91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in Miskel, p. 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. How To Appendix! 58. 94 Quoted in Platt, p. 89. 96 Jeb Bush, Think Locally on Relief, op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.

97 Quoted in House of Romance, Representatives, , p. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, Five Lessons from how to Hurricane Sandy, November 29, 2012, p. 1. 99 Quoted in ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, Is Sandy the Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever, Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, Disaster Management: Improving the Nations Response to Catastrophic Disasters, GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. 3.

105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of Public Administration, which is Pool City Essay discussed in Miskel, p. 87. 108 Quoted in Miskel, p. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. Appendix! 41, 8385. 112 House of the ewells, Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared, March 1, 2006, chap. 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.

116 House of Representatives, pp. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere, New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, 85M Pounds of Ice Growing Down the Drain, abcnews.com, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.

Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, One Year Later: Katrinas Waste, August 28, 2006, p. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims, CNN.com, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, p. How To! 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.

300302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, Hurricanes Katrina and of the standard Rita Disaster Relief, GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, Katrina Fraud Swamps System, USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion, December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Eileen Sullivan, Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid, Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, Breathtaking Waste and Fraud in Hurricane Aid, New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of how to format, Representatives, p. 286. 136 Sobel and Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.

Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, Homeland Security Wont Let Red Cross Deliver Food, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game, New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, Offers of Aid Immediate, but U.S. The Warrior In The City! Approval Delayed for Days, Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game. 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. Appendix! 6.

144 Associated Press, Agency Beyond Repair and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says, April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, Department of Homeland Bureaucracy, Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. The Ewells! 83. 150 Gregory J. Sanial, The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guards Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in how to appendix Crisis, masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of of reflection, Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, Making Hurricane Response More Effective, Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.

152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. How To! 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on of the of taste, Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. How To Format! 10. See also James F. Of The Of Taste! Miskel, Disaster Response and how to appendix Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.

312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief, Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. D1. 163 House of Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in example paper ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government, 2013, www.bestplacestowork.org. 168 Department of Homeland Security, Office of appendix, Inspector General, FEMAs Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster, September 2014, p. 5.

171 Meghan Barr, AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival, Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of Homeland Security, DHS Announces Grant Allocation for Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants, press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin, no. 393, March 10, 2014. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin, no.

394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, Safety at Any Price: Assessing the Impact of Homeland Security Spending in Comparing the Stories of Kaur Essay U.S. Cities, December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.

178 Department of Homeland Security, Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program, DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from Outside the format appendix Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of Homeland Security, Funding Opportunity Announcement, Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. 23. 182 Melissa Raines, Hazmat Trailer, Truck to Be Sold, Mount Vernon News , August 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to Local Police, New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police, Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.

4, 3641. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. Romance! 548. For general information, see www.fema.gov/assistance-firefighters-grant. 188 PBS.org, Citizen Ben : Firefighter, 2002, www.pbs.org/benfranklin. 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Local Government Finances, Table 1, www.census.gov/govs/local.

The 2011 total is format $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects, www.mysanantonio.com, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at The Divine Essay, Live Burn, press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and how to format Risk Analysis, www.fema.gov/fiscal-year-2013-budget. 193 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NOAAs State of the Coast, 2012, http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/pop100yr/welcome.html. 194 GAO, Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on Subsidized Properties, GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. 4. 195 Rawle O. King, The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and standard of taste Remaining Issues for Congress, Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the WYO Program, GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.

198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help? Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. How To Appendix! 30. 199 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues, p. 12. 200 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to and Contrasting of Kaur and Ha Address Challenges, GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. Format Appendix! 1. 202 For some of the differences between NFIP and of reflection paper private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, True Market-Risk Rates for how to appendix Flood Insurance, June 2011. The Divine Romance! And see American Academy of Actuaries, The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future? July 2011. 203 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues, p. How To Format! 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, p. 4. 206 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges, p. The Warrior Pool Essay! 9.

207 GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues, p. 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers? editorial, www.theweek.com, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, Flooding the Market, Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of format appendix, Law, April 2010, p. Of Reflection Paper! 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of America. 215 King, p. 20. And see GAO, National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and how to appendix Operational Issues, p. 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red, USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, Taxpayers Get Soaked by the ewells, Governments Flood Insurance, abcnews.com, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.

219 Eli Lehrer, Watery Marauders, Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. xvii. 224 James Bovard, Uncle Sams Flood Machine, The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the market failure of adverse selection is a barrier to private flood insurance.

But adverse selection is based on the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to how to insurance companies. Of The! That is not the case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States, www.insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Harrington, Rethinking Disaster Policy, Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. How To Format! And see Scott E. Harrington and Tom Miller, Insurance Regulation and Government Insurance, Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement, GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for of reflection Financial Services, The Potential for Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S., 2014, p. How To Appendix! 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill, www.insurancejournal.com, March 24, 2014. The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Hofmann, Congress to of the of taste Consider Privatizing the how to format appendix NFIP, www.businessinsurance.com, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.

Candice S. Miller, Rep. The Divine Romance! Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program, press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the how to format appendix population in Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 Ive argued that most of the of the standard of taste functions of the Corps should be privatized. See Chris Edwards, Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.

241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, The Threatening Storm, Time , August 2, 2007, and how to appendix Michael Grunwald, Setting the Stage for More Katrinas, Time , August 2, 2007.

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