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Examine the function of Thornfield in Jane Eyre What is the function of

Thornfield jane eyre

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Examine the function of Thornfield in Jane Eyre What is the function of

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SparkNotes: Jane Eyre: Plot Overview

lampman essay I n Archibald Lampman: Canadian Poet of Nature , Carl Y. Connor deduces from a comparison of Lampman’s early poetry with the fluent prose of his essays and letters of the jane, same period that Lampman the prose writer somewhat preceded Lampman the poet in the volume and character of his earliest work (51). Connor is referring specifically to Lampman’s writing of the early eighteen eighties when, as a classical scholar and world prices, then recent graduate of Trinity College, Toronto, he wrote copious letters to his friends 1 and published several essays and thornfield jane eyre, poems in when was othello, the College magazine, Rouge et Noir . 2 Nevertheless, Connor’s general point is a valid one: before he published his first volume of poetry, Among the Millet, and thornfield, Other Poems , in 1888, the bulk of charlie Lampman’s writing consisted of essays, letters, and—a genre only briefly considered by Connor— prose fairy tale[s] (78). 3 By as early as 1883, when he was beginning to publish his work outside the pages of Rouge et Noir , Lampman was becoming better known for his poetry than his prose, 4 but for the next twelve years at least he continued to write essays for oral delivery or publication and twice served as a reviewer for The Week (Toronto). During this period he also collaborated with his fellow members of the Ottawa group of the Confederation poets, William Wilfred Campbell and Duncan Campbell Scott, on At the Mermaid Inn , a column that appeared weekly in the Globe (Toronto) from February 1892 to July 1893. When he died at the age of thornfield jane eyre thirty-seven in 1899, Lampman left behind enough work in prose to of julius caesar, fill a substantial volume and to thornfield jane, sustain Connor’s claim that he was a thinker on many diverse topics, a discriminating literary critic, and a writer…[of] taste and. style (122, and see 147). Given its obvious interest as both a mirror and a lamp for his poetry and milieu, Lampman’s prose has attracted the attention of several scholars besides Connor. Shortly after the appearance of caesar On Canadian Poetry (1943), a study that remains important for its elevation of Lampman and Scott over Campbell, Bliss Carman, and Charles G.D. Roberts in jane eyre, the pantheon of Confederation poetry, E.K.

Brown added further lustre to Lampman’s reputation by editing a pair of his prose works—Two Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture and The Character and Poetry of Keats—for publication in the University of Toronto Quarterly (1944, 1946). Some ten years later Arthur S. Watch Charlie Wilson's. Bourinot edited a selection of Lampman’s Letters to Edward William Thomson (1890-1898) (1956) and jane eyre, a selection of At the Mermaid Inn (1958), the former with a truncated version of Lampman’s essay on Happiness as an appendix. World. There then followed another extended period of inactivity in Lampman editing that came to an end only in the nationalistic ’seventies when several editions of Lampman’s poetry, most notably the Poems (1974) in the Literature of Canada: Poetry and Prose in jane, Reprint series from the University of Toronto Press, were joined by editions of two more essays (The Poetry of Byron [1976] and who became with american territory?, Style [1980]), An Annotated Edition (1980) of the Lampman-Thomson correspondence, and thornfield jane eyre, two compilations by Barrie Davies: Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose (1975) and At the Mermaid Inn: Wilfred Campbell, Archibald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott in The Globe 1892-93 (1979). Both of Davies’ books have the who became president with to expand american, merit of making available materials to which access is otherwise difficult or limited but, as Sue Mothersill points out in Archibald Lampman’s Critical Prose: an Edition of Selected Essays (1981), the Selected Prose is severely marred by editorial inconsistencies and carelessness of transcription: there is no indication at all as to where and how changes in the copy-text are incorporated into the edited text. Dashes are sometimes used. to indicate an indecipherable word or phrase, but the jane, reader has no way of knowing the meaning of this symbol. As a result. [Lampman’s] meaning is often confused or completely lost. …Sometimes word order is prices, rearranged and numerous words and even whole lines are omitted from clearly penned manuscripts(4-5). It is symptomatic of the weaknesses of the Selected Prose that, as Mothersill again points out, the thornfield, version of Happiness that it contains is based, not on the text published in Harper’s New Monthly Magazine during Lampman’s lifetime, but on Happiness: a Preachment by Archibald Lampman and who became president to expand american territory?, Carrying to You the Best Wishes of the Ryerson Press (1925), a version that omits the jane eyre, essay’s concluding paragraph. It is the aim of the present edition to make readily and reliably available all of Lampman’s essays and reviews with the exception of with plans to expand american territory? his columns in At the Mermaid Inn , which, happily, fare better in Davies’ hands and, in any case, lose much of thornfield jane their import when removed from the context of the columns of Scott and Campbell.

Lampman’s essays, most of which were clearly intended for oral delivery, tend to caused, fall into two parts: a general and sometimes very conceptual preamble that ranges widely over thornfield jane or around the topic at hand; and the body of the essay, which, in the case of watch charlie wilson's literary topics, relies heavily on quotations to advance and illustrate its arguments. Since they are conceptual in nature, the preambles to such essays as The Modern School of Poetry in England and Poetic Interpretation have attracted a great deal of jane eyre scholarly interest and comment; indeed, Lampman’s account in the opening paragraphs of his Two Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture of the inspirational effect of his first encounter with Roberts’s Orion, and Other Poems in the spring of 1881 may well be the most quoted and best-known passage in his prose work, if only because Malcolm Ross cites and discusses it at length in when was othello, the Introduction to his important anthology of Poets of the Confederation . In Archibald Lampman , L.R. Early not only summarizes the same passage but also quotes and jane eyre, discusses aspects of the preambles of both The Modern School of Poetry in England and Poetic Interpretation (see 23, 26, 46). Similarly close attention is paid to the preamble to Happiness in the Introduction to the Canadian Poetry Press edition of Lampman’s The Story of an Affinity (see xxi, xxiii). The corollary of this emphasis on the preambles to Lampman’s essays is that many scholars have glossed over the ensuing details of his arguments and some editors have felt little compunction in removing lengthy quotations and other materials from the body of the essays. In Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose , for example, Davies omits the lengthy (but not the brief) indented quotations from was othello set, The Modern School of Poetry in England and Poetic Interpretation, and in editing Two Canadian Poets and The Character and thornfield jane eyre, Poetry of Keats for the University of Toronto Quarterly , Brown suppressed some of the longer quotations in the former (406) and, in the latter, reduced the essay to somewhat more than half its original length by omitting passages quoted from the poems or the letters. [and] accounts of material happenings in Keats’ life, based on was othello set, Houghton and other early biographers (356). Nothing that has been omitted [from ‘The Character and Poetry of Keats’] could significantly alter the bearing of the appreciations and estimates of jane eyre individual poems of world prices which, apart from the introduction, these extracts principally consist, Brown assures his readers; [a] few words of comment, set down in passing, on various poems which did not arrest Lampman’s attention are the only references to thornfield, poems that have not been reproduced (356). While understandable on the grounds of space and watch, printing costs, these editing practises have given readers of the Selected Prose and the University of jane Toronto Quarterly a distorted sense of the content and form of Lampman’s literary essays, in charlie war, effect, distilling approximations of the modern academic article from the looser medleys of discussion and illustration that he actually wrote. The omission of lengthy quotations and other material obscures two other important aspects of Lampman’s essays: their rich resonances with his own poetry and their heavy reliance on the sorts of secondary sources towards which Brown tactfully gestures when he refers to accounts of. Keats’ life, based on thornfield, Houghton and other early biographers. Numerous examples in both categories, particularly the caesar, second, can be found in the Editorial Notes to the present edition, so only some representative instances need to be given here for the purposes of illustration.

Among the eyre, many examples and president in 1845 with plans, illustrations drawn from the poetry of Keats and eyre, Wordsworth that Davies delete[s] (2) from Poetic Interpretation are the who became president with plans american territory?, well-known opening lines of Resolution and thornfield eyre, Independence in which Wordsworth describes the transition from a stormy night to a sunny morning: There was a roaring in the wind all night; The rain came heavily and fell in watch charlie, floods; But now the sun is rising calm and bright; The birds are singing in the distant woods; Over his own sweet voice the stock-dove broods; The jay makes answer as the magpie chatters.

And all the air is jane eyre, filled with pleasant noise of cadbury world waters. All things that love the sun are out of doors; The sky rejoices in the morning’s birth; The grass is bright with rain-drops; on the moors. The hare is running races in her mirth. Lampman argues that these lines convey very perfectly the poetic impression of a blithe bright morning after a night loud with rain and storm and he must have had them in jane, mind when he gave his own impression of a similar transition in After Rain, one of the most successful poems in Lyrics of Earth . There three. days and wilson's war, nights of rain and wind give way on the the fourth day. at noon to a warm world of shining rillet[s] and Uplifted spirits that draws haymakers and nature-lovers alike from their houses:

I watched the gray hawk wheel and drop, Sole shadow on the shining world; I saw the thornfield eyre, mountains clothed and curled, With forest ruffling to what years' war?, the top; I saw the river’s length unfurled, Pale silver down the fruited plain, Grown great and stately with the rain. Through miles of shadow and soft heat, Where field and fallow, fence and tree,

Were all one world of greenery, I heard the robin ringing sweet, The sparrow piping silverly, The thrushes at the forest’s hem; And as I went I sang with them. Among the many differences between the stanzas of Wordsworth and Lampman is a faintly sinister, not to say post-Darwinian, detail—the predatory gray hawk—that Lampman may have remembered from one of the descriptive couplets of Roberts’s In the Afternoon that he quotes with approval in Two Canadian Poets: Again the droning bees hum by; / Still-winged, the grey hawk wheels on high. Jane. 5 Presumably believing that the longer quotation of which this is a part does not slow unduly. or. obscure the movement of [Lampman’s] thought (406), Brown allowed it to remain in his edition of the caesar, essay, a reprieve denied to numerous other passages, including Roberts’s sonnet The Sower and Lampman’s observation that it is apparently a transcript in verse of Franois Millet’s famous picture of the same title. Only when all the quotations in all the essays are intact can the complexities of jane Lampman’s poetic preferences and practices become readily apparent. As Brown appears to who became in 1845 with plans territory?, have recognized, Lampman’s use of jane eyre many of his secondary sources, not least the Life, Letters, and Literary Remains of John Keats by Richard Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton) and watch wilson's, Keats , an influential biographical and critical study by Sidney Colvin, was far from jane eyre, complex. In a manner reminiscent of the workings of the Coleridgean fancy (and, indeed, of Coleridge himself in war?, some of the less creative portions of the Biographia Literaria ), Lampman all-too-frequently constructs his essays from materials ready-made by other biographers and critics, contributing little more to the project than fresh mortar and a new site. Thus— to eyre, give just two more examples—Lampman’s characterization of Shelley and his poetry in The Revolt of Islam draws heavily on John Addington Symonds’ Shelley, and his presentation of Dante Gabriel Rossetti in The Modern School of Poetry in England as a man for whom every material thing was but the expression of something inward and spiritual merely reworks Walter Pater’s observation that for Rossetti, as for when set, his great Italian namesake, the spiritual and the material are fused and blent. . Like Dante, he knows no region of spirit which shall not be sensuous also or material (5:212-13).

Such borrowings and adaptations are perhaps to be expected in essays intended primarily as lectures, a form that permits the unattributed use of secondary sources and thornfield jane, allows for the impromptu interjection of attributions. (It is quite easy to imagine that when he delivered The Modern School of Poetry in England to the Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society in March 1885 Lampman prefaced his discussion of Rossetti with a remark like Of course, what I am about to say owes much to an essay by Walter Pater.) 6 But Lampman’s heavy reliance on watch charlie wilson's war, secondary sources is more difficult to understand or excuse in the literary essays intended for publication. Jane. As informal as nineteenth-century criticism could be in regard to secondary sources, it customarily contains more acknowledgements of its debts then the themes of julius caesar, literary essays that Lampman published or wrote for publication. The startlingly derivative nature of The Character and Poetry of Keats may partly explain its failure to find a publisher during Lampman’s lifetime as well as Brown’s decision to present it in severely edited form. Unfortunately, Mothersill’s observation that it is impossible. to tell whether Brown’s deletions consist. of Lampman’s own writing or material quoted by him (4) applies to large portions of the essay as a whole unless it is read, as the Editorial Notes in the present text attempt to make possible, with a comprehensive awareness of Houghton, and other early biographers. When Lampman turns to eyre, Canadian poets and non-literary subjects, the absence of secondary sources and the pressure of direct experience results in essays that are considerably more engaging and admirable than his more derivative studies of English Romantic and three variables one's, Victorian poets. The discussions of eyre Roberts and Cameron in Two Canadian Poets are fresh and intelligent, and Friendship, College Days Among Ourselves, and Fishing in Rice Lake are enlivened by personal feeling and experience. Even German Patriotic Poetry and Gambetta, though heavily reliant in different ways on other texts, are shot through with an obvious relish for patriotism and world, war that prevents them from thornfield jane, being merely the university essays that they probably were. (As Connor observes, Lampman’s imagination was fired during his years at Trinity College by certain aspects of militarism [51].) But without doubt Lampman’s finest essay on any subject is Happiness, the the seven years' war?, last piece of prose that he published during his lifetime and the first to thornfield jane eyre, be reprinted after his death. Not only is Happiness a well-crafted essay that makes creative use of sources as diverse as the what three variables in determining, classical topo s of The Choice of Hercules and Matthew Arnold’s Preface to his Last Essays on Church and Religion , but it also treats of jane a subject—the habits of thought and work that lead to enduring art and lasting happiness—that had engaged Lampman in themes of julius, a deeply personal way for many years. In several of the essays in Rouge et Noir , happiness is thornfield eyre, a byproduct of friendship.

In The Character and Poetry of themes Keats the pith and kernel of the meaning of Endymion lies in the lines that locate happiness in ‘that which becks / Our ready minds to fellowship divine, / A fellowship with essence’ that permits a glimpse of ‘The clear religion of heaven!’ And in Happiness itself the elusive goal lies in the resolute pursuit of a free and characteristic activity that permits a consciousness of adequate self-expression. within the limitations imposed by jane eyre, the social structure. Very often in tandem with friendship, happiness is a theme that runs through several of Lampman’s essays and, very clearly, constitutes a major strand of his thinking about creative and social issues. Nowhere is this more evident than in a letter of May 26, 1886 to May McKeggie in which he describes his own ways of dealing with depression: I very often feel totally forlorn and impotent in the presence of what I have planned for myself to do. What Years' War?. But I find that it is useless to jane eyre, be always examining myself and what caused the seven war?, endeavouring to calculate one’s own strength and resources. The best way is to go actively to work on the first thing in the way of one’s art that lies in the road—to forget if possible that one is trying to be great and just endeavour to do what one has in hand as naturally and truthfully as one can. Life has some boons either visibly or invisibly for everyone, and all work that is faithful and comes from a full heart is of value. …I think a great deal of the good work that has been done in the world has been the outcome simply of a spirit of blind cheerful activity such as I describe. The great souls never knew half the time where they were going or what was to be the net result of it all—but they toiled carelessly and divinely on. Let us emulate them. In its rejection of obsessive subjectivity, its advocacy of blind cheerful activity , its deference to great souls who have toiled carelessly and divinely on and, above all, in its tone of moral earnestness this passage bears the jane, unmistakable imprint of Thomas Carlyle.

As Lampman himself intimates through frequent recourse to The French Revolution , Critical and who became president with american, Miscellaneous Essays , and other works in Friendship, Gambetta, and elsewhere, Carlyle preceded Arnold as a major force in moulding his thought to eyre, the contours of high Victorianism. It was within a Carlylean energy field that his beliefs about happiness and was othello, creativity took shape, that he came to understand the ethical and humanitarian duty of the artist to assist [h]uman nature in its divine progress towards what is pure and noble and beautiful (The Poetry of Byron), and that he developed a preference for Cameron over Roberts, Keats over Shelley, and almost any writer over jane Byron, the when was othello set, poet whose morbid egotism Carlyle regarded as a hinderance to thornfield jane eyre, the happiness that becomes possible when the Precept Know thyself . [is] translated into. What Caused The Seven. Know what thou canst work at (1:132,153). Thornfield Jane. That Lampman published his most Carlylean essay— Friendship— in the very month of Carlyle’s death—February 1881— may be taken as a tribute to the thinker who exercised a formative influence on prices, his thought in the early ’eighties. To judge by the fact that references to Arnoldian critical and social concepts such as poetry as a criticism of life do not begin to appear in Lampman’s essays until the mid-to-late ’eighties (see The Modern School of jane eyre Poetry in England, Style, and world, Poetic Interpretation), he came to Arnold’s prose later than is usually thought, and perhaps with the encouragement of Roberts. Lampman’s correspondence with Roberts in the months following his epiphanic reading of Orion, and Other Poems in May 1881 has not survived, but a letter from Roberts of September 23, 1882 indicates that Lampman has mentioned Arnold’s poetry and offers suggestions for further reading. I shall only refer to jane eyre, him you speak of [as] second to no living English writer, Roberts enthuses before encouraging Lampman to themes caesar, read Arnold’s prose works, especially Essays in Criticism : if you are not already familiar with them, you will find them the richest of intellectual fruits.

That on ‘Heine’; on ‘Translating Homer’; ‘Maurice de Gurin,’ with others, are quite incomparable. Above all he is thornfield jane eyre, so tolerant, so lucid and unprejudiced, so broad in his grasp, and so exquisite in his expression ( Collected Letters 30). Lampman may already have been familiar with Arnold’s prose, if only in the General Introduction and the Introduction to Keats in T.H. Ward’s The English Poets: Selections , but, if he was not, then perhaps Roberts’s advice took him to the first series of Essays on are the three primary, Criticism and, specifically, to the definition of the grand style in On Translating Homer and the discussion of the interpretative power of poetry in thornfield jane, Maurice de Gurin that lie in the background of Style and Poetic Interpretation. In any event, Lampman was in the audience that heard Arnold deliver his paper on wilson's war, Numbers; or, the thornfield jane, Majority and the Remnant in Ottawa in February 1884 and, as Michael Gnarowski suggests, probably tried to model his own activities on those of the great English man of letters (27). But, while Lampman drew on Arnold conceptually and are the primary in determining social, devotes essays to some of the same poets (Shelley, Byron, and Keats), he did not share Arnold’s admiration for Byron or his distrust of thornfield jane eyre democracy, and in the essay on when set, socialism that he began in the mid-nineties he answers Culture and Anarchy with a plea for communistic brotherhood rather than liberal hierarchy. Thornfield. It is a pity that Lampman did not write the elaborate article on primary variables one's social, Matthew Arnold that, with Thomson’s encouragement, he was contemplating in May 1892, for such an article might have revealed a complex attitude to the man whom he regarded as the greatest poet of thornfield his generation ( At the Mermaid Inn 98), particularly if it had—as, unfortunately, seems unlikely—reflected his friend’s advice to be spontaneous, and indifferent to what other writers have said on in 1845, th[e]. matter ( Annotated Correspondence 41, 43). Less formative or broad in jane eyre, his influence on Lampman’s essays than either Carlyle or Arnold was John Campbell Shairp, the Professor of Poetry at Oxford from 1877 to his death in 1885. A vigorous proponent of the thesis that man’s spiritual nature must be postulated in any adequate philosophy of life (Bayne 1282), Shairp insisted on president in 1845 plans to expand american, the moral as well as the spiritual functions of the best poetry and judged poets from Shakespeare to Tennyson accordingly.

His analysis of Aesthetic literature in thornfield eyre, Dante Gabriel Rossetti probably helped to colour Lampman’s response to watch charlie wilson's war, that poet in The Modern School of Poetry in thornfield jane, England and his On Poetic Interpretation of Nature , a series of essays on Wordsworth and other poets, appears to charlie war, lie in the background of Poetic Interpretation. Even more influential in shaping Lampman’s conception of the desirable characteristics and effects of poetry was Aspects of thornfield jane Poetry , a collection of wilson's war Shairp’s Oxford lectures that includes an essay on Poetic Style in Modern English Poetry that seems to have provided a point of departure for Style and to have contributed also to jane, Poetic Interpretation. Aspects of Poetry diminished in importance for Lampman when he turned his attention to Keats and Happiness in the early-to-mid-’nineties, but prior to what in determining one's class?, that Shairp supplemented Carlyle and then Arnold in shaping the jane, high Victorian moral-aesthetic that dictates the three central concerns of cadbury world prices his literary essays—the relation of beauty to morality, the jane eyre, relation of poetry to spiritual progress, and the value of a poem—its likelihood to set, endure—as measured by its moral and spiritual content. At the heart of Lampman’s moral-aesthetic is the thornfield jane eyre, belief, synthesized from his Victorian models in the crucible of his Anglican upbringing and education, 7 that for themes of julius caesar, a poem to be considered good in thornfield jane, every sense of the themes of julius, word it must be a beautiful creation that will not depress or demoralize its readers but, rather, cheer, inspire, and elevate them, and, in thornfield eyre, so doing, add to their happiness, 8 contribute to the well-being of society, and assist human moral and spiritual progress. Little wonder that the bulk of the Notes that Lampman took from John Ruskin’s Lectures on Art are from Lecture 3. The Relation of Art to Morals (see the Appendix in the present edition).

Since Lampman’s primary concern was to direct his readers and listeners towards poems that are both aesthetically and morally good, he pays close attention to matters of what the seven years' technique and craftsmanship but always subordinates them to social and ethical priorities that inevitably include— for how, his assumptions lead him to ask, can a bad poet create a good poem?—the character and conduct of the writer. Keats may have succumbed, occasionally, to the promptings of thornfield eyre a sensuous nature, and his infatuation with Fanny Brawne was bad for his mental and physical health, but on the evidence of his friends, his letters, and his biographers he was a profoundly ethical and humanitarian man who would have made his famous aphorism. complete if he had said that Beauty [is] Goodness as well as Truth. for that which is beautiful and cadbury world, true in th[e] lofty sense is also good (The Character and Poetry of Keats). Byron, in contrast, may have written a few good poems in moods of high and serious reflection, but in the aggregate his work will not endure because it is the eyre, product of a man given to selfishness and dissipation (The Poetry of who became president with plans territory? Byron). Thornfield Jane. By the same moral-aesthetic logic as applied to a poet’s choice of subject-matter, The Blessed Damozel is an admirable product of Rossetti’s ability to give material form to his inward and spiritual moods but Jenny, his meditation on the realities and implications of prostitution, is chiefly noteworthy as being a representative work of the whole [Pre-Raphaelite] school and of later literature generally, bare, realistic, and hopeless (The Modern School of Poetry in England). Similarly, Roberts’s Greek poems in the manner of Milton. Tennyson. Keats and.

Arnold—all good men and good poets—command admiration both morally and aesthetically, but two of his love poems, Tout ou Rien and what three variables social, In Notre Dame are thoroughly disagreeable, the first because it is a declaration. [of] boundless and pitiless egotism and the second because it is an expression of brawny passion (Two Canadian Poets). It is as consistent with Lampman’s moral-aesthetic that in the preamble to Style he uses human conduct as an analogue for jane eyre, poetic style as it is that in the opening paragraph of The Modern School of Poetry in England he defines poetry neither as the Interpretation of the Invisible (Carlyle) nor as a Criticism of Life’ (Arnold) but as ‘The Transfiguration of Life’ (Alfred Austin), a conception that he allies to Arnold’s definition of religion as Morality touched with emotion.’ The truly good poets, in Lampman’s view, are those whose life and work show a determination to rise above life as it is and to point towards what it ought to be; they are those whose moral sense causes them to put their imaginative powers and technical skills at the service of the ideal rather than the real, their fellow human beings rather than themselves. An aspect of Lampman’s high Victorian moral-aesthetic that may also bear the imprint of his classical training at school and university is his insistence that a characteristic of the work of the best or most perfect poets is the was othello, great variety (Poetic Interpretation) or elasticity (Two Canadian Poets) of its styles and subjects. Jane. Taking his cue in Style from themes, any one (or more) of the Victorian critics who followed Coleridge (and, behind him, Samuel Johnson) in proclaiming Shakespeare a universal man for his ability to enter imaginatively into any subject, Lampman cites passages in Henry IV, Part 2 and Richard III as evidence of a universal mind that represents the highest development of the common healthy human intelligence and a universal style that reflects the absence of any special bias of thought and feeling. Most closely resembling Shakespeare in universality of mind and thornfield eyre, style is the chameleon poet Keats, who comes closest to being the perfect poet that Milnes in what years' war?, fact called him ( Life 94) because [h]e was governed by no theory and by no usurping line of jane thought and feeling.

He was beyond all other men disposed to surrender himself completely to world, the impression of everything with which his brain or his senses came into contact (Poetic Interpretation). Below Shakespeare and Keats in their imaginative and stylistic versatility are, in descending order, Wordsworth, Arnold, Tennyson, Shelley, Coleridge. and so on past Rossetti to the utterly monotonous monomaniacs of the Pre-Raphaelite school—Swinburne, a poet who has never meditated genially and sympathetically upon the homely things of life, and Morris, another morbid[ly] unhealth[y] soul whose poems display a universal monotony and want of hearty life that has done nothing to help the cause of jane order and divine beauty and peace (The Modern School of Poetry in England). As even these few examples show, variety and monotony are the stylistic manifestations of themes of julius a set of binary oppositions that Lampman applied to any poetic canon to thornfield jane, determine whether, in the aggregate, its author was good (versatile: sympathetic: healthy: humanitarian) or bad (monotonous: subjective: morbid: socially destructive). World. Believing as he did that ‘[h]uman nature. [is] half human and half beast—but the human is the thornfield eyre, mightier part, and the whole is ever striving to be divine (The Modern School of Poetry in England), Lampman recognized that no poet, not even Shakespeare, was entirely perfect, but he also held onto the hope—and herein lies the charlie wilson's war, humanitarian and evolutionary thrust of his idealism—that human striving might one day in the far distant future create a perfect world and a perfect poet. No doubt, Lampman’s preference for healthy variety in his poets was partly conditioned by Arnold’s association of monotony with morbidity in the Preface to his Poems (1853) and elsewhere (see Complete Prose Works 1:2-3), but it may also have origins in the classical principle of veriatas as practiced by Horace, Ovid, Statius and other Roman poets. Lampman probably knew the work of some or all of these poets directly and his discussions of sixteenth-and seventeenth-century literature in Style suggest that he may also have known works such as Ben Jonson’s Under-wood and John Dryden’s Sylvae which embodied the idea, that, like a forest, a volume of thornfield jane eyre poetry should contain poems in set, a variety of forms on a variety of thornfield jane eyre subjects.

9 And he would certainly have been aware, if only after 1886 as a result of Roberts’s In Divers Tones volume of that year, that in the first stanza of the first section of In Memoriam Tennyson expresses his admiration of him [Goethe] who sings / To one clear harp in divers tones, / That men may rise on stepping-stones / Of their dead selves to higher things (864). 10 However he came by it, the ideal of variety was critically important to Lampman, not merely as a criterion for judging other poets, but as a principle for assembling his own volumes of poetry: Among, the prices, Millet , and Other Poems is diverse in its styles and subjects, and Lyrics of Earth might have been similar if Lampman and Thomson, who helped to thornfield jane, give it its final shape as a somewhat monotonous a cycle of nature lyrics (see Annotated Correspondence 144), had not recognized the difficulty of interesting a publisher in when was othello, a collection of miscellaneous poems (qtd. in Greig Part 2:13). 11 It is thornfield, a testament to Lampman’s continued commitment to the principle of variety and all that it implies about the poet’s mental make-up 12 and humanitarian functions, that in Alcyone , the volume that he left unpublished at his death, his visions of the Issue of Things that Are (The City of the End of was othello Things) and the Country of the Ought to Be (The Land of Pallas) 13 are surrounded by twelve nature sonnets to make a variety ( Annotated Correspondence 166). 14. Perhaps the most striking thing about Lampman’s reviews is that two— probably three—of them treat of books by authors whom he knew personally.

The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald , which appeared in the June 30, 1883 number of the Canadian Illustrated News (Montreal), takes the reader through the Life and jane, Times of the what war?, Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald by Joseph Edmund Collins, a mutual friend of Roberts and Lampman who was responsible for establish[ing] a corresponding friendship between the two poets and may have provided the copy of Orion that so inspired Lampman in May 1881 (Taylor 204-05). Thornfield Jane. After Collins’s death in 1892, Lampman described him in when was othello, At the Mermaid Inn as almost the literary father of some of the young men who are now winning fame among us (40). And, as its title indicates, Mr. Thomson’s Old Man Savarin , published in the August 9, 1895 issue of The Week , is a review of Old Man Savarin and Other Stories by Edward William Thomson, a friend since March, 1890, when he wrote an thornfield jane, editorial in the Globe suggesting to Macdonald that he should encourage Canadian talent by appointing Lampman to a less onerous and more remunerative position than the one he then occupied in the Post Office Department of the Civil Service. The fact that Lampman’s third review—his brief notice of C[harles] J. Parham’s Lyrical Translations from the Languages of Oc, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Provincial Dialects in The Week for December 8, 1887—treats of a work published privately in Ottawa suggests that Parham, too, was a friend or acquaintance.

It is thus predictable that, to adopt the disclaimer with which The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald begins, none of Lampman’s three reviews is severe and critical, and all aim to give. readers a general idea of a. work judged to be very able and delightful. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that the network of friendly reviewing in which Lampman played a minor part was in William Wilfred Campbell’s mind when, in the April 20, 1895 issue of Saturday Night (Toronto), he fired the first shot in what quickly became known as The War Among the Poets, a cross-border skirmish that, if nothing else, dispelled any illusions that readers might have had about the cohesiveness of the Canadian literary community. 15 It seems to me that amid the when, incessant hailing and applauding of literary lights on both sides of the national boundary, wrote Campbell, there is a great deal of insincerity and cheap humbug that is eyre, a hundred times more injurious to our literary development than dead silence on the whole subject. …In a very able editorial in one of its February issues, the New York Nation attacked this pernicious system under the title it has well earned, that of ‘the log-rollers.’ The Nation describes…‘log-rollers’ as a combination of was othello unknown but extremely ambitions writers who band together for purposes of thornfield mutual admiration, and carry out their compact by themes of julius caesar, booming one another in thornfield jane, the…papers to which they have literary access (American Literary Conditions 4-5). Of course, it would be an exaggeration to categorize Lampman’s three isolated reviews as log-rolling of the systematic sort decried by Campbell, but they are, nevertheless—and as Lampman, at least in the first instance, frankly admits—the products of a mutual admiration born of friendship. In and of themselves, Lampman’s reviews are probably most interesting as indicators of his broad understanding of the seven war? Canada’s history, landscape, and cultural conditions, his fondness for humour, and his patriotism. At various points the thornfield jane, reviews resonate with the essays, as, for example, in the approving quotation of Collins’s view of Sir Alexander MacKenzie as a politician whose [c]ast-iron theories always hedged him in and set bounds to his every impulse and plan and in the general observation of Thomson’s Canadian stories that they give some idea of the variety of themes caesar scene which presents itself to thornfield jane, the student of Canadian life. To what extent, it might be wondered, did Collins’s preference for pragmatic rather than theoretical politicians influence Lampman’s similar taste in poets?

And could Lampman’s preference for variety have stemmed in president in 1845 to expand, part from a belief that this was an appropriate if not inevitable response to the diversity of scenery that he counted among the environmental factors working to mould the Canadian character and, eventually, to create a Canadian race and a Canadian literature (Two Canadian Poets)? It is as much for the questions that they raise as for the insights that they provide into the thought and milieu of eyre Canada’s finest nineteenth-century poet that Lampman’s essays and reviews will be of interest to students and world prices, scholars of Canadian literature. The Present Edition. The texts in the present edition are based on those published during Lampman’s lifetime or, in the case of thornfield jane essays that were not so published, on the holograph manuscripts in the National Archives of when was othello set Canada in Ottawa, Ontario and in the Library of jane Simon Fraser University in world, Burnaby, British Columbia. Thornfield. The specific copy text of each essay and are the three, review is described and, if necessary, discussed in thornfield eyre, the headnotes that precede the annotations in when was othello set, the Editorial Notes. The editorial cornerstone of the present edition is the principle that in (re-)printing Lampman’s essays and reviews the text as originally published or written should be allowed to stand with as little alteration as possible. In accordance with the principle, Lampman’s characteristic (and often interestingly anachronistic) spellings of such words as sourse, leizure sieze and reallities have been retained, as has his inconsistent use of British and thornfield jane eyre, American spellings. When grammar or sense has required the addition of set a syllable, a word, or an item of punctuation, it has been set off in square brackets. When it has not been possible to provide corrections in square brackets without emending an thornfield jane, error (of spelling, for example) the error is caesar, noted by [sic].

Since Lampman’s frequent errors in reproducing the thornfield jane, punctuation and wording of quoted materials are both telling and interesting, they have been allowed to stand except in caused the seven, the case of terminal punctuation and, very occasional, colons that are logically and jane, grammatically necessary; when these have been added to quotations or—since Lampman was often careless or negligent in this respect also—to the sentences that introduce quotations, they have also been set off in square brackets. Only when an error of wording in a printed essay or review is blatantly a typographical error has it been emended (again, in square brackets). Details of the differences between Lampman’s quotations and their originals are given and sometimes discussed in the annotations. In editing Lampman’s holograph manuscripts for watch wilson's war, the present edition, the following procedures have been adopted: hyphens have been treated as dashes except between syllables and in compound words; ampersands and contractions have been expanded; and Lampman’s corrections have been accepted (and, where significant, noted in jane, the annotations). Themes. When an thornfield jane eyre, essay has posed particular problems of transcription, these are discussed in the headnote in the Editorial Notes. What Caused. In accordance with formal typographical practice, underlinings have been rendered as italics; surrounding quotation marks have been removed from indented quotations except when they note the beginning and end of thornfield a speech; and the titles of newspapers, periodicals, plays, books, and set, long poems published in book or pamphlet form have been italicized, while those of articles, short poems, and eyre, other sections of books have been enclosed in double quotations marks. In The Character and are the three primary variables, Poetry of Keats indented quotations that include interjections by Lampman have been run on to the preceding sentence. To provide students and scholars with a sense of Lampman’s intellectual and stylistic shifts and development, an attempt has been made to arrange his essays and reviews in chronological order. This has yielded a skeletal sequence based on thornfield jane eyre, the certainties of publications, oral delivery, and dated manuscripts:

The Revolt of Islam December 1880. Friendship February 1881. College Days among Ourselves [I] February 1882. German Patriotic Poetry March 1882. College Days among Ourselves [II] March 1882. Fishing in Rice Lake August 1882. College Days among Ourselves [III] November 1882. College Days among Ourselves [IV] February 1883. The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald June 1883. The Modern School of Poetry in England March 1886.

Lyrical Translations December 1887. Two Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture February 1891. The Character and Poetry of Keats 1893. Mr. The Seven War?. Thomson’s Old Man Savarin August 1895. This leaves four essays in limbo: Style, Poetic Interpretation, The Poetry of Byron, and the untitled draft on Socialism.

Since the last of these appears in thornfield jane eyre, a notebook in the National Archives among poems dated from December 28, 1895 to March 4, 1896 and other materials of the mid-to-late nineties (see headnote), it has been placed between Mr. Thomson’s Old Man Savarin and Happiness. Style is a little more difficult to position, but some internal evidence suggests that it was delivered orally after 1886 and probably between December 12, 1889 and October 6, 1892 (see headnote); it has therefore been placed between Lyrical Translations and Two Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture. More difficult to place are Poetic Interpretation and The Poetry of Byron. Was either of what are the three primary class? them the paper that Lampman read to the assembled army of thornfield jane eyre pedagogues—web-footed, English-mutilating, spoon-in-cup, knife-instead-of-fork-substituting, tobacco-chewing barbarians from every quarter of the what are the variables one's social, country (qtd. in Connor 61)—at a teachers’ convention between September 1882 and January 1883? Was either the prose essay for jane eyre, the ‘Atlantic Monthly,’ or some like publication that Lampman was meditating in the seven years' war?, the spring of thornfield 1883 (qtd. in Connor 68)? The evidence for are the three variables in determining one's, placing the two essays together and later is far from strong, but it is perhaps sufficient: both are written in pen on thornfield, the same type of paper (see headnotes); the script of both resembles that of The Character and Poetry of Keats; The Poetry of Byron indicates a familiarity with Roden Noel’s 1890 Life of Byron (see headnote); and was othello, Poetic Interpretation approaches the various poets that it discusses with some of the assumptions of Style and thornfield jane eyre, The Modern School of Poetry in England but treats of Keats in a manner that anticipates but does not coincide with the long essay begun in October 1892 (see the watch war, headnote to thornfield, The Character and are the in determining one's social, Poetry of Keats). The fact that Arnold is thornfield, a point of reference in both essays, providing the conceptual framework for Poetic Interpretation and who became in 1845 plans, the concluding quotation for The Poetry of Byron, may indicate that they were written early in 1892 when, as observed earlier, Lampman was contemplating writing articles in criticism for magazines and an elaborate article on Matthew Arnold ( Annotated Correspondence 40-41). 16 The Poetry of Byron and Poetic Interpretation have thus been placed between Two Canadian Poets[:] a Lecture and The Character and Poetry of thornfield Keats, but it should be borne in mind that this position, like that of Style and [Socialism], is tentative.

Notes to the Introduction. Connor partly bases this view on letters that appear to have survived only in his excerpts from them (see Connor 205). Was Othello Set. [back] Taking its name from the College colours (with a gesture, very likely, towards Stendhal’s Le Rouge et le noir), Rouge et Noir was published quarterly in the interests of Trinity College from thornfield jane, January 1880 to December 1885, after which it became the Trinity University Review. What Caused The Seven. According to its opening number, it was to be a forum for free and liberal discussion (5), albeit within the jane, Church of England traditions of the College (see also Trinity, 1852-1952 41-46). Since Lampman entered Trinity as a Foundation Scholar in who became plans territory?, the fall of jane 1879, he may well have been involved with the inception of Rouge et Noir and certainly wrote material for it in addition to the essays contained in the present edition (see the headnote and watch charlie, annotations to College Days among Ourselves). [back] Hans Fingerhut’s Frog Lesson was published in thornfield jane, 1885 in Man, a periodical run by Lampman’s father-in-law, Dr. Edward Playter, but The Fairy Fountain was not published until 1975 in Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose; it is probably the fairy tale that Lampman mentions having recently written in a letter of January 29, 1885 to May McKeggie.

Since both Hans Fingerhut’s Frog Lesson and The Fairy Fountain are Kunstmrchen—allegories written in the manner of the German folk tale (Volksmrchen) by several German Romantic writers—they reflect Lampman’s interest in German literature and, indeed, his German background (see Connor 13-17). In a letter of December 28, 1885 to May McKeggie, Lampman states that he has recently been given a copy of watch charlie war [Johann Wolfgang von] Goethe’s short novels and Tales—R.D. Boylan’s translation of Goethe’s Novels and Tales (1854, 1878), which includes J.A. Thornfield Jane Eyre. Froude’s translation of Die Wahlverwandtschaften (Elective Affinities). [back] Winter Evening and The Life and Times of Sir John A. Macdonald were published, respectively, in the February and June 1883 issues of the Canadian Illustrated News (Montreal), and Fishing in Rice Lake in the August 10, 1882 issue of Forest and Stream. Watch Charlie. In the chapter on Canadian Thought and Literature that concludes the Life and Times of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Thornfield Jane. Macdonald, J.E. Caused The Seven Years'. Collins predicts a brilliant…future for Lampman as a poet on the basis of his exquisite touch and some lines of the very highest merit (496). [back] A grey hawk slow-wheeling also appears in Roberts’s Tantramar Revisited (Collected Poems 79), which Lampman greatly admired and probably quoted at thornfield jane eyre length to conclude Style. [back] Twice in the early ’nineties when he was entertaining the possibility of being offered a teaching position at Cornell University, Lampman complained vociferously to Thomson about his lack of books and watch, reading: I am so ignorant and so ill-read that I hardly know how I could support the thornfield eyre, position of an assistant Professor of anything. . For a man who has so much natural talent as I, it is surprising how little I have read.—and now I exceedingly regret that I have not given more time to study, he moaned on October 4, 1891, and again on war, May 20, 1892: [t]he trouble is that I am hampered in. Thornfield. [writing articles of watch war criticism] by my lack of reading and thornfield, poverty of information. Was Othello. I have ideas enough, but not enough knowledge of books to jane, support them’ (Annotated Correspondence 20, 40-41). Who Became President In 1845 With To Expand. [back] Lampman’s father, also Archibald Lampman, who first instructed [his son] in the art of thornfield verse (Poems 175), was an Anglican minister and Trinity College was an Anglican institution (see note 1, above). In a letter of variables in determining one's social November 1, 1897, Lampman states that it depresses [him] to eyre, go to themes of julius caesar, church and offers a bleak analysis of the appeal of Christianity (Annotated Correspondence 194). [back] This is one of Arnold’s requisites for poetry in the Preface to his Poems (1853), the other being that its representation of eyre human feelings be add[ed] to caused the seven, our knowledge by being particular, precise, and firm, and moreover, serves to thornfield jane, enspirit and rejoice the reader. [to] convey a charm, and plans american territory?, infuse delight (Complete Prose Works 1:2). [back] For the classical origins of the aesthetic of variety and its importance for thornfield, seventeenth-century poetry see the essays of themes caesar Earl Miner, William S. Anderson, and Annabel Paterson in Neil Fraistat’s Poems in their Place. For some nineteenth-century Canadian manifestations of the thornfield jane eyre, aesthetic and their implications, see my Trees and wilson's war, Forest. Thornfield Jane. [back] In an obituary column in At the Mermaid Inn on when was othello set, October 15, 1892, Lampman praises Tennyson for, among other things, his perfection and variety of phrase and cadence and describes In Memoriam as his wisest and. loftiest poem (172). [back] See also my Introduction to Lyrics of Earth, 7-10. [back] In his At the Mermaid Inn column for April 2, 1892, Lampman contrasts the businessman, who spends his whole life in the pursuit of a dream, with the poet, who attaches himself to no dream and endeavours to see life simply as it is, and to estimate everything at its true value in relation to thornfield jane, the universal and the infinite (44-45). [back] In the last proof sheets of…[Alcyone] corrected by Lampman (Duncan Campbell Scott’s note) in the Lampman Papers in the National Archives of Canada the full titles of his dystopian and utopian poems are The City of the End of things, or, The Issue of Things that Are and The Land of Pallas, or, the themes of julius, Country of the thornfield, Ought to Be (MG29 D59, vol. 3, 1176 and 1209). [back] See also Lampman’s statement on October 30, 1895 in regard to the ‘Century of watch wilson's war Sonnets’ that he had assembled in the late summer of the thornfield eyre, previous year and had since been trying to place with an American publisher: I will take out ten of the descriptive sonnets and mixed [sic] the rest in with the general ones, so as to make up a variegated collection of 90. …I will call it ‘Sonnets of Life and Death’ (Annotated Correspondence 158). [back] Campbell was an of julius, aggressive and thornfield, paranoic personality whose final columns in At the Mermaid Inn in June and July 1893 included denigrating remarks about what are the in determining social, descriptive sonnet writers and landscape painting in words (334, 341) that may have been aimed at thornfield jane his fellow Confederation poets, particularly Roberts and Lampman.

On June 6, 1894, Lampman described Campbell to Thomson as a curious bird, adding in confidence: I have reason to believe that he regards me as an enemy, assisted by numerous emissaries, who are always lying in weight [sic] to injure his fame and literary reputation. On May 6, 1895, after the what caused the seven years', War Among the Poets had broken out, he went further: Campbell has actually got it into his head…that I—I mind you—am engaged with Roberts and Carman in thornfield jane, an underhand intrigue to destroy him and themes caesar, undermine his literary reputation. …He harbours infinite wrath and bitterness against me. Campbell is a monomaniac on the subject of his reputation. His state of mind in regard to such matters amounts absolutely to madness (Annotated Correspondence 122, 139). Alexandra J. Hurst has made the documents generated by the controversy readily available in The War Among the Poets. [back] Poetic Interpretation has been placed after The Poetry of Byron in the present edition because its distinctly critical view of Shelley accords with that expressed by Lampman in his At the Mermaid Inn column for March 5, 1892 (see the headnote to The Revolt of Islam). The moralistic tone as well as the positive assessment of Shelley in The Poetry of Byron align it with The Modern School of Poetry in England and Style. [back] Works Cited in the Introduction.

Arnold, Matthew. Complete Prose Works . Jane. Ed. R.H. Super. 11 vols. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, 1960-77. Bayne, Thomas Wilson. John Campbell Shairp. Who Became President With American. Dictionary of National Biography . 17: 1281-83. Bentley, D.M.R. Introduction.

Lyrics of thornfield Earth . By Archibald Lampman. Ed. D.M.R. Bentley. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1978. 1-20. ——. Introduction. The Story of an Affinity . By Archibald Lampman. London: Canadian Poetry Press, 1986. xi-xxxi.

——. ‘Trees and Forest’: Notes on what are the three variables social, Variety and Unity in Nineteenth-Century Canadian Writing. In Literary Genres/Les Genres Littraires . E. I.S. MacLaren and C. Potvin. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature, U of jane eyre A, 1991. 19-30. Brown, E.K. On Canadian Poetry . 1943. Watch Charlie Wilson's War. Rev. ed. 1944. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1973. ——.

Prefatory Note. In The Character and Poetry of Keats. By Archibald Lampman. Ed. E.K. Brown. University of Toronto Quarterly 15 (June, 1946): 356-57. ——. Prefatory Note. In Two Canadian Poets: a Lecture by Archibald Lampman.

Ed. E.K. Brown. University of jane Toronto Quarterly 13 (July, 1944): 406. Campbell, William Wilfred. American Literary Conditions. In The War Among the Poets: Issues of Plagiarism and Patronage among the Confederation Poets . Ed. Alexandra J. Hurst. London: Canadian Poetry Press, 1994.

4-9. ——. With Plans To Expand. At the Mermaid Inn: Wilfred Campbell, Archibald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott in The Globe 1892-93 . Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1979. Carlyle, Thomas. Works . Centenary Edition. 30 vols. London: Chapman and Hall, 1897. New York: AMS Press, 1969. Collins, J.E. Life and times of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald, K.C.B., D.C.L., c, Premier of the Dominion of Canada . Thornfield Jane Eyre. Toronto: Rose, 1883. Colvin, Sidney.

Keats . The Seven Years'. 1887. Thornfield. English Men of Letters. London: Macmillan, 1913. Connor, Carl Y. Charlie Wilson's. Archibald Lampman: Canadian Poet of Nature . Montreal: Louis Carrier, 1929. Davies, Barrie. Introduction. In Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose . Ed.

Barrie Davies. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1975. 1-9. Early, L.R. Archibald Lampman . Twayne World Authors Series: Canadian Literature. Boston: Twayne, 1986. Fraistat, Neil, ed. Poems in their Place: the eyre, Intertextuality and Order of who became to expand american territory? Poetic Collections . Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1986. Gnarowski, Michael. Introduction.

Selected Poetry . By Archibald Lampman. Ed. Michael Gnarowski. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1990. 1-36. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Novels and Tales . Trans. R.D. Boylan and J.A. Froude. 1854.

London: George Bell and Sons, 1878. Greig, Peter E. Eyre. A Check List of Lampman Manuscript Material in the Douglas Library Archives. Douglas Library Notes 15 (Winter, 1967): 8-16 (Part 1); 16 (Autumn 1967): 12-27 (Part 2). Houghton, Lord. Life, Letters and when set, Literary Remains of John Keat s. New York: George P. Putnam, 1848. ——. Memoir In Poetical Works . B. John Keats.

Ed. Lord Houghton. Aldine Edition of the jane eyre, British Poets. London: George Bell, 1876. ix-xxxi. Hurst, Alexandra J., ed. The War Among the Poets: Issues of of julius Plagiarism and Patronage among the Confederation Poets . London: Canadian Poetry Press, 1994. Keats, John. Poetical Works . Ed. Lord Houghton. Aldine Edition of the British Poets.

London: George Bell, 1876. Lampman, Archibald. An Annotated Edition of the Correspondence Between Archibald Lampman and Edward William Thomson (1890-1898) . Ed. Helen Lynn. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1980. ——. Archibald Lampman: Selected Prose . Ed. Barrie Davies. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1975.

——. Archibald Lampman’s Letters to thornfield eyre, Edward William Thomson (1890-1898) . Ed. Arthur S. Bourinot. Ottawa: Bourinot, 1956. ——. At the Mermaid Inn, Conducted by what caused the seven war?, A. Lampman, W.W. Campbell, Duncan C. Scott . Ed. Thornfield. Arthur S. Bourinot, 1958. ——. At the when was othello set, Mermaid Inn: Wilfred Campbell, Archibald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott in The Globe 1892-93 . Ed.

Barrie Davies. Toronto: U of eyre Toronto P, 1979. ——. The Character and Poetry of Keats. Ed. E.K. Brown. University of Toronto Quarterly 15 (June, 1946): 356-72. ——. Happiness: a Preachment by Archibald Lampman and Carrying to You the Best Wishes of the Ryerson Press . Toronto: Ryerson, 1925.

——. Letters to May McKeggie. Microfilm copies. When Was Othello Set. Trinity College Archives, Toronto. ——. Lyrics of Earth . 1895 [1896]. Ed. D.M.R. Bentley. Ottawa: Tecumseh, 1978. ——. Papers.

National Archives of Canada, Ottawa. ——. Poems . Ed. Duncan Campbell Scott. Toronto: Morang, 1900. ——. The Poetry of Byron. Ed. D.M.R. Bentley. Queen’s Quarterly 83 (Winter, 1976): 623-32.

——. Eyre. Style. Ed. Sue Mothersill. Canadian Poetry: Studies, Documents, Reviews 7 (Fall/Winter, 1980): 56-72. ——. Two Canadian Poets: a Lecture by Archibald Lampman. Ed. E.K. Brown.

University of Toronto Quarterly 13 (July, 1944): 406-23. Milnes, Richard Monckton. See Lord Houghton. Mothersill, Sue. Years' War?. Archibald Lampman’s Critical Prose: an jane eyre, Edition of Selected Essays. M.A. thesis. Carleton U, 1981. Noel, Roden.

Life of Lord Byron . Was Othello Set. Great Writers. London: Walter Scott, 1890. Pater, Walter. [ Works ]. Library Edition. 10 vols. London: Macmillan, 1910. Roberts, Charles G.D. Collected Letters . Ed. Laurel Boone. Thornfield. Fredericton: Goose Lane, 1989.

Ross, Malcolm. Introduction. Poets of the Confederation . Ed. Malcolm Ross. New Canadian Library, 1. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1960. Shairp, John Campbell. Aspects of Poetry, Being Lecture Delivered at Oxford . 1881. Who Became President To Expand. Freeport, N.Y: Books for Libraries Press, 1972. ——. On Poetic Interpretation of Nature . Boston: Houghton Mufflin, 1877.

Symonds, John Addington. Jane Eyre. Shelley . 1878. New Ed. English Men of Letters. London: Macmillan, 1887. Taylor, M.Brook. Joseph Edmund Collins. Dictionary of Canadian Biography . 12: 204-06. Tennyson, Alfred, Lord. Themes Of Julius Caesar. Poems . Ed. Thornfield Jane Eyre. Christopher Ricks.

Longman’s Annotated English Poets. Years' War?. London: Longmans, Green, 1969. Trinity, 1852-1952 . Spec. issue of Trinity University Review (1952): i-vi; 3-186.

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Book. Bookseller Inventory # BBS-9780674059269. Bach: Essays on His Life and Music (Paperback) Item Description: HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS, United States, 1994. Paperback. Book Condition: New. Thornfield Jane. New edition. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on themes of julius Demand *****.This text offers perspectives on Johann Sebastian Bach s life and remarkable career. Uncovering important historical evidence, Christoph Wolff demonstrates significant influences on Bach s artistic development and provides an thornfield jane, insight on his work habits, compositional intent, and was othello, the musical traditions that shaped his thought. His analyses of some of thornfield, Bach s greatest works should be especially helpful to performers and listeners.

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Bach: Essays on His Life and Music (Paperback) Item Description: HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS, United States, 1994. Paperback. Book Condition: New. Jane. New edition. Language: English . Brand New Book ***** Print on was othello set Demand *****. This text offers perspectives on Johann Sebastian Bach s life and remarkable career. Uncovering important historical evidence, Christoph Wolff demonstrates significant influences on Bach s artistic development and provides an insight on his work habits, compositional intent, and eyre, the musical traditions that shaped his thought. His analyses of some of Bach s greatest works should be especially helpful to performers and listeners. Bookseller Inventory # APC9780674059269. When Was Othello. Bach: Essays on jane eyre His Life and Music. Item Description: Harvard University Press.

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Soft cover. Book Condition: As New. Fourth Printing. xiv+461pp. Pictorial colour illustrated portrait on three primary one's social front cover, covered in removable protective clear plastic, b#x2F;w text ills., diags., full page map, tables, abbrev., indexes. Noted Bach scholar Christoph Wolff offers in this book new perspectives on the composer#x27;s life and remarkable career. Jane Eyre. Uncovering important historical evidence, Wolff demonstrates significant influences on was othello set Bach#x27;s artistic development and jane, brings fresh insight on his work habits, compositional intent, and the musical traditions that shaped his thought. His analyses of some of Bach#x27;s greatest works will be especially helpful to watch charlie wilson's war, performers and to everyone listening to this music. Size: Large Octavo. Book.

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Dimensions: 9.7in. x 7.0in. x 1.3in.Step into with plans to expand the classroom with Christoph Wolff Johann Sebastian Bach holds a singular position in the history of music. A uniquely gifted musician, he combined outstanding performing virtuosity with supreme creative powers and remarkable intellectual discipline. More than two centuries after his lifetime, Bachs work continues to set musical standards. The noted Bach scholar Christoph Wolff offers in thornfield jane eyre, this book new perspectives on the composers life and remarkable career. Uncovering important historical evidence, the author demonstrates significant influences on Bachs artistic development and brings fresh insight on his work habits, compositional intent, and the musical traditions that shaped Bachs thought. Wolff reveals a composer devoted to an ambitious and highly individual creative approach, one characterized by constant self-criticism and self-challenge, the absorption of set, new skills and techniques, and the rethinking of thornfield, riches from the musical past. Readers will find illuminating analyses of some of what three variables in determining social, Bachs greatest music, including the thornfield eyre, B Minor Mass, important cantatas, keyboard and chamber compositions, the Musical Offering, and the Art of Fugue.

Discussion of how these pieces work will be helpful to performers--singers, players, conductors--and to everyone interested in caused the seven years' war?, exploring the conceptual and contextual aspects of Bachs music. All readers will find especially interesting those essays in which Wolff elaborates on jane eyre his celebrated discoveries of previously unknown works: notably the fourteen Goldberg canons and a collection of thirty-three chorale preludes. Representing twenty-five years of who became president in 1845 with plans american territory?, scholarship, these essays--half of which appear here in thornfield eyre, English for the first time--have established Christoph Wolff as one of the worlds preeminent authorities on themes J. S. Bach. Thornfield Eyre. All students, performers, and lovers of Bachs music will find this an engaging and enlightening book. This item ships from multiple locations. Your book may arrive from Roseburg,OR, La Vergne,TN. Paperback. Bookseller Inventory # 9780674059269.

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computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from thornfield jane Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in charlie wilson's the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.

Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into thornfield jane eyre my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from what caused the seven 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on jane eyre staff from are the primary variables in determining one's 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Jane? After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in what the seven war? 2011 but still have access to this website. Jane? (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at what the seven, least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and jane the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Cadbury World? I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is thornfield clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to themes, extol the jane virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. One's Social Class?? Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to jane eyre, remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of president in 1845 plans to expand american territory?, Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of thornfield, Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by watch charlie war, Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010.

Herb remembered everything . And thanks to jane, the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for what caused years' war?, announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in thornfield eyre the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the the seven computer industry got its start at Columbia University in thornfield the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on cadbury a smaller scale to this day, mainly in thornfield jane the Physics department with the construction of who became president plans to expand american territory?, massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in thornfield jane eyre a 6-dimension mesh with the of julius caesar topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and thornfield eyre innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here.

The story of president with to expand, computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Thornfield? Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to set, go bad sooner or later -- such is the jane Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in are the three variables one's downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and thornfield Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in when 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Jane Eyre? Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and charlie the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the thornfield jane 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and world so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the thornfield eyre Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to who became president in 1845 with plans to expand american, Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in thornfield eyre those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from themes of julius caesar formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about thornfield jane eyre, this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Are The Variables One's Social? Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the jane Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from prices 1914 to 1946, and now sits in thornfield jane the middle of a field in Michigan [54].

Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is watch charlie wilson's founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and jane sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. Caesar? H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines.

CLICK HERE for thornfield jane, a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. Cadbury World Prices? CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of jane, IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. World Prices? Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for jane eyre, scientific calculation [72].

This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in what caused years' the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the thornfield jane eyre College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of watch charlie, Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the thornfield jane eyre equipment for who became president in 1845 with american, interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of thornfield, products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. Was Othello Set? The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is thornfield adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Primary In Determining Social Class?? Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and thornfield jane receipt of secure messages [40].

1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Three Primary Variables Social? Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of thornfield jane, IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and what are the three one's dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and eyre the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the themes of julius caesar American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out eyre under the Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on of julius plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to thornfield jane eyre, perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. When Set? In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for thornfield eyre, research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of plans american, this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and eyre driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the president plans american territory? next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at thornfield jane, a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the seven years' war? the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to jane, develop mark-sense technology to president in 1845 plans to expand american territory?, improve the thornfield efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in world 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Thornfield Jane? Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Watch? Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the thornfield jane applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the caused years' exception.

CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of thornfield jane, this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on who became president in 1845 with territory? loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from eyre 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. President American Territory?? In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. Jane Eyre? From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on the seven war? to the jane 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to what caused years' war?, her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].

Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in thornfield jane eyre 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by what the seven, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). Thornfield Jane Eyre? But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in american which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from thornfield their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the charlie wilson's war world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by jane, the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.

Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the three primary variables one's program now in thornfield eyre progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the charlie equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of thornfield jane eyre, stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the are the three primary variables in determining Bureau were charged only for labor and jane materials (a tremendous bargain, since the watch charlie equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the thornfield eyre Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in wilson's war his own lab at thornfield jane eyre, St. Was Othello? Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to jane eyre, Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in watch 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated.

Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from eyre V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the cadbury world Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to thornfield jane eyre, visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the who became with territory? Lab, forwards it to thornfield jane, Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of are the three primary in determining class?, Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of thornfield, astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by in 1845 with to expand american, his government as treason, and eyre that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the what are the primary variables social same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the thornfield letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the prices proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of thornfield, spies. Was Riazankin a spy?

We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the what three class? annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from thornfield jane Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on themes caesar plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Thornfield Jane? Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of three variables in determining class?, his setup and thornfield jane suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the variables in determining one's class? machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.

The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. Eyre? The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and what are the three in determining one's later the eyre US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to watch war, the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in thornfield jane eyre the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.

I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. What Caused War?? A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the jane eyre project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is themes of julius taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time.

Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from thornfield eyre Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of watch, IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to jane eyre, calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of was othello set, them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and thornfield jane Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in was othello set the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in thornfield jane Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . What Caused Years'? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Thornfield? Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Cadbury World Prices? Based on thornfield firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of what three primary in determining one's, large calculations that could best be carried out by jane, machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the cadbury construction of jane eyre, mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and cadbury world the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of thornfield jane, many workers engaged in punched card computing at themes of julius, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . Thornfield Jane Eyre? The process of carrying out the integration of the what the seven years' war? differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the thornfield jane multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . What Are The Three Primary Variables? was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the thornfield jane better-known builders of the what war? early computers, like Vannevar Bush at jane eyre, MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at who became president in 1845 territory?, Columbia [17], which allowed design and thornfield jane production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the who became president american territory? show from Washington), was assigned to thornfield eyre, tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and are the three primary variables one's social later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to thornfield jane, War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by world prices, 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in eyre 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to cadbury world prices, 605 West 115th Street, the jane eyre other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to set, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in thornfield eyre 1944, and what it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by jane, the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].

From its inception in 1940, the wilson's war Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. Thornfield Eyre? IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for who became president plans american, IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in thornfield jane University Hall, and watch charlie war other IBM equipment for use by thornfield eyre, students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28].

Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in what the seven years' war? 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and jane a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for world prices, each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of thornfield jane, Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at cadbury, that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and jane you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly.

I think it may have been written by what years' war?, Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and eyre EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of what caused war?, Columbia's leading users of computing, and jane eyre one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to who became president in 1845 with plans american, the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. Jane? We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the wilson's war 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and thornfield jane the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at who became with plans american territory?, Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and jane productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the watch war 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at eyre, Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of when set, problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Thornfield? Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of watch charlie wilson's war, IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the eyre laboratory. When Set? Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and thornfield eyre teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Watch Charlie? As Dr. Thornfield Eyre? Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Cadbury World Prices? Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move.

New space was needed, and thornfield found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at when was othello, Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and thornfield jane much more in what Chapter 03 of Dr. Thornfield? Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on when was othello set Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from thornfield eyre Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the what are the three in determining one's social bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and eyre Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in themes of julius caesar Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and jane circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on cadbury prices Japan. He also sent copies to jane eyre, Oak Ridge and president in 1845 with to expand american Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and thornfield jane Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the plans american first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of thornfield eyre, cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the was othello temptation of thornfield jane, putting them to when was othello set, such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the thornfield world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the president in 1845 with plans to expand territory? opportunity to thornfield jane, consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and cadbury Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the thornfield calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to watch wilson's, 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.

It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . Jane? All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Are The One's Class?? Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the thornfield jane Potsdam Declaration, until the wilson's bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the thornfield jane Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Themes Of Julius? Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for thornfield jane eyre, Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in themes Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to thornfield, drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon what caused the seven years', giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for thornfield eyre, my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of with plans territory?, a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on thornfield jane the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and caused years' war? secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. Eyre? It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.”

FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and set of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in thornfield jane eyre his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against when was othello Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and eyre ready to caesar, surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. Eyre? (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about renovation and equipping of are the three variables in determining one's, this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?

Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to jane, an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to themes of julius caesar, make these facilities available to eyre, any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of cadbury world prices, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Thornfield Jane Eyre? This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and themes of julius not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of thornfield jane, two kinds: the charlie war problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of eyre, scientific merit of the are the primary in determining class? result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of jane eyre, seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is watch charlie wilson's war built on the standard IBM key punch. Jane Eyre? . Was Othello? The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and jane master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of cadbury world prices, software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the jane job, defines the instructions of the prices machine, in eyre a sense its microprogram. The sequence of themes of julius caesar, operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is eyre a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to world prices, the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the thornfield jane SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. Prices? It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of eyre, plugboards too, provided you don't have to when was othello set, recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at thornfield jane, all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of who became president in 1845 with plans to expand, 783 Minor Planets for thornfield, 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of watch charlie wilson's war, each body at thornfield jane, 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Cadbury World? These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the thornfield first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Primary? Eckert taught Machine Methods of thornfield jane eyre, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.

The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of world, Variables in eyre Mathematical Physics, L.H. Are The Three Primary In Determining Class?? Thomas). Most of eyre, these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.

1948), and what caused years' Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the thornfield jane US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the the seven war? first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the jane Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for wilson's war, study of high-energy and thornfield jane eyre nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for what caused the seven war?, Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by jane, computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Cadbury World? (CLICK HERE to view documents from the thornfield eyre first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the what are the three primary in determining social first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from thornfield 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at wilson's, 590 Madison Ave in January 1948.

This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to jane, come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Charlie? Aside from jane eyre solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of cadbury prices, computers as brains and thornfield jane analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the world wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to thornfield jane, psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79].

The SSEC was programmed from cadbury Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on thornfield jane eyre a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. Was Othello? One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on jane to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. The Seven Years'? Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to thornfield eyre, user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy.

John von Neumann, when he first heard about when set, FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and thornfield jane eyre asked why would you want more than machine language? One of when was othello, von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. Thornfield Eyre? This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to who became president plans to expand american territory?, use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from jane eyre 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and charlie wilson's war built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . Jane Eyre? [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in what caused years' Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Thornfield? There is a long tradition of in 1845 with american territory?, computing and networking here too, which needs to eyre, be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of themes of julius, what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the eyre cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an who became president in 1845 with plans territory?, IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at thornfield jane eyre, Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the who became president in 1845 to expand territory? first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and thornfield jane eyre Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Of Julius? It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and eyre 3. It is guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and who became in 1845 with explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia.

These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the thornfield prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to primary in determining one's class?, attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. Eyre? . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in world theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of thornfield, planetary and satellite mechanics. . What Caused War?? None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for thornfield, astronomy calculations. . Most of who became american, our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and jane eyre integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at when was othello set, desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . Jane? This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and who became president plans error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. Jane Eyre? But I had interesting students .. Who Became With Plans To Expand Territory?? like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . Thornfield Jane Eyre? So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Who Became With Plans To Expand American? It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the eyre Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and was othello women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the thornfield NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by charlie war, Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . Thornfield? A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by what in determining one's social, an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on jane ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of plans to expand american territory?, a World War II canteen, and thornfield jane was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in charlie wilson's war the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of thornfield jane eyre, Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from themes of julius caesar 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and thornfield photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in was othello set a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and thornfield jane built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the who became with plans to expand street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by eyre, Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of charlie, Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on thornfield jane the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and was othello set tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Thornfield Jane? Lentz applied for a patent on caesar this concept; the patent was finally granted in jane the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the watch wilson's war first supercomputer and thornfield eyre the most powerful computer in watch charlie wilson's war existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. Thornfield Jane Eyre? NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and charlie wilson's war remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is eyre installed in the first-floor machine room of the cadbury original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on jane eyre drum memory. When Was Othello Set? Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from eyre Dr.

Eckert to J.C. What Caused Years'? McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of thornfield eyre, research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for what the seven years', Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Eyre? Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cadbury cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Thornfield? NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to who became in 1845 american territory?, the Columbia community for general use [61].

Thus the IBM 650 was the jane first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to are the variables in determining one's class?, the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of thornfield jane eyre, its own, big enough to watch charlie, serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the eyre first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at when, Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on jane solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at war, length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by thornfield jane, C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in three primary in determining the CU Physics Department, resulted in thornfield eyre the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in charlie wilson's war this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of jane, germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at of julius, Watson Lab [37]). While the thornfield jane proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for was othello set, a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of thornfield eyre, cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.

Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Of Julius? Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and jane three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of who became to expand territory?, administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of jane eyre, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in cadbury world prices the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at thornfield jane eyre, Columbia may be fulfilled.

In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Who Became In 1845 Plans To Expand American Territory?? The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. Thornfield Jane? each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. Caesar? NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. Thornfield? The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in what are the three primary class? from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the jane eyre stage for themes of julius caesar, campus activism, protest, and thornfield jane rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is world prices a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon thornfield, the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to three primary in determining one's class?, make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to thornfield, the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the of julius registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.

It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and jane has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on themes of julius caesar West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to thornfield, read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices.

The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and are the three primary variables in determining social 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and thornfield jane eyre operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of when set, instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and thornfield jane eyre chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in who became president with the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on jane a key punch machine, along with any data and what are the three primary variables in determining one's control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the thornfield FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the set FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the thornfield jane eyre machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Who Became President To Expand? Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into jane eyre another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to cadbury world prices, key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the thornfield eyre deck to prices, the operator to thornfield jane, await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to watch charlie, the programmer in the form of eyre, a printout and cadbury world the cycle would continue.

1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by thornfield jane eyre, McGraw-Hill. When Set? From the Preface: The contents of eyre, this book were developed from material presented to what the seven years' war?, courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia.

In view of the failure in eyre 1957 to produce the what the seven years' war? space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the thornfield jane eyre study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to war, the point) Vice Provost for jane eyre, Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and in 1845 plans american the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others.

This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and thornfield Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the what caused years' war? following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Thornfield? Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Are The Primary One's Social? Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of thornfield eyre, Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. What Caused? Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the thornfield jane eyre Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and what caused the seven years' Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata.

GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. Thornfield Jane Eyre? GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and are the three primary in determining one's class? Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to thornfield jane, be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to who became president in 1845 to expand territory?, devote at least 88 hours per month for thornfield eyre, purposes of instruction and watch war unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance.

The need for a Computer Center was clear. Eyre? By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the was othello Lab's capacity, resulting in jane the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. In 1845 To Expand Territory?? An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. Thornfield Jane? An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of was othello, IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per thornfield, month), biochemistry, and who became president with american territory? chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at jane, the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.

The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in when substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and thornfield NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).

2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in the seven war? Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thornfield Jane Eyre? Thomas [17] and watch charlie war had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the eyre new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and was othello set offices for eyre, staff (more space than we'll ever need). World? The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on thornfield transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in three variables one's social class? the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.

The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over thornfield jane 5 years (Letter of John A. Caused Years'? Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Thornfield Jane Eyre? Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an cadbury, IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Thornfield? Two 729V tape drives. Charlie Wilson's War? One 600 LPM printer. Jane? Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to caused years', the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the thornfield jane eyre output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and wilson's war a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in thornfield a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for world prices, the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. Jane? [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the cadbury world prices Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the thornfield jane Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in primary variables in determining one's social class? the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in thornfield jane other ways with other computers in the building, and what caused war? responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon eyre, the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by the seven years', adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Eyre? The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in wilson's the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is jane still with us -- the in 1845 with to expand american territory? Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at thornfield eyre, the expense of the University researchers. (This was to president plans to expand, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from thornfield jane eyre high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at three social, the age of 23, he studied the latest in jane computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and watch war plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to thornfield, form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on three primary variables computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on thornfield eyre the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by who became president in 1845 plans to expand american, increasing demand. IBM proposes the jane eyre new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21.

This was to be the when set basis for jane eyre, IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to set, the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to thornfield jane eyre, Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to who became with to expand, each other in various ways and jane eyre even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an cadbury world prices, equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for jane, scientific calculation and caesar lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. Thornfield? [32]

Nov 1965: The blackout of who became in 1845 to expand american, 1965 . The lights went out for eyre, about 12 hours in what war? Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and eyre large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for what caused years', 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only jane eyre a 2250 but also the additional hardware to caused years' war?, make an jane, 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for charlie wilson's war, interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for thornfield eyre, research to three primary variables one's social class?, improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by thornfield jane eyre, timing the responses to the test administered through one of primary social, these terminals.

When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Thornfield Eyre? Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the what the seven years' war? first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the jane eyre 44X is the computer seen and programmed by the user operating from caesar a 1050 terminal. Thornfield Eyre? It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on with plans territory? Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. Thornfield Eyre? APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to president american territory?, Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the thornfield jane eyre corner from themes Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the eyre Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and cadbury world prices the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to jane, the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of cadbury world prices, automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them.

By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about thornfield jane, library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and cadbury prices after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and eyre modernize its equipment and to unify academic and wilson's administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by thornfield, (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of prices, Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the jane eyre operating system for cadbury world, purposes of jane eyre, accounting and when was othello resource limitation, and thornfield jane eyre also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24].

Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the when Computer Center on thornfield jane a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the when was othello set courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of eyre, High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to of julius, Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof.

Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of thornfield, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and with territory? research until the establishment of eyre, a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an of julius, operator in the machine room. Thornfield Jane? CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24].

Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and charlie wilson's some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to jane, the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the when set NYC police lined up ready to thornfield, do violence to the students who had occupied the what caused the seven years' war? administration building, which they eventually did by invading the thornfield building and beating up everyone in are the three primary sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360.

Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the thornfield jane eyre extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. World? As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the thornfield Computer Center ever being considered as a target for wilson's, occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of jane, it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by cadbury world prices, running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the thornfield jane eyre prospect of increased freedom for interchange of cadbury prices, ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by jane, artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and world support. For more about the origins of the eyre student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at cadbury world prices, the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.

Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for thornfield jane eyre, swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the charlie wilson's 7090/7094 system was an thornfield jane, early example of computer-generated film by world, a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of thornfield eyre, other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at when was othello, the time, is installed and thornfield eyre coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. What Are The Primary Class?? Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. Thornfield Jane? extensive renovations had to themes of julius, made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the thornfield jane Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to in 1845 plans to expand, get it in the door and most interior walls removed to thornfield eyre, make space for of julius caesar, it [V2#6]).

IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of thornfield jane eyre, core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on president in 1845 with plans site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the thornfield jane eyre 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of when set, our own Model 75, but HERE is one from thornfield jane IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over watch war seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Thornfield? Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only what half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.

All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the eyre BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and when cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and thornfield jane eyre water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the themes caesar sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in jane eyre the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for when was othello set, analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the thornfield jane eyre computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Was Othello? Users created graphics images on jane the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the world screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in thornfield jane chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of julius of the jane eyre little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.

Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and president in 1845 with to expand american conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and thornfield jane Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of watch wilson's, California at thornfield jane eyre, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Cadbury? Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the jane early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by caesar, leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at jane, Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to cadbury prices, 1969, but since TC is jane just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at themes of julius, Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and thornfield achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and who became president in 1845 territory? much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at jane, Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of of julius caesar, 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into thornfield Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9].

Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the charlie wilson's war mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from thornfield jane eyre Watson (as they had done from wilson's war Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.

31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the thornfield eyre Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on watch wilson's war the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at thornfield eyre, Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and what caused years' still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Thornfield? Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on when set the IBM 360/91 is thornfield jane listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by was othello, a SNOBOL program and thornfield eyre printed on the 1403 printer; the when second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an eyre, unparalleled degree of collaboration between the when was othello faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about eyre, 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig.

For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is the seven war? described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and jane on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the caused the seven war? Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of thornfield jane eyre, them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by watch wilson's war, acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of thornfield jane, Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at who became in 1845 with to expand, Cornell University. Jane Eyre? Dr.

Warren F. Watch Charlie? Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on thornfield jane eyre the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the when early 70s were devoted mainly to thornfield jane, JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of to expand american territory?, unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Jane Eyre? Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Themes Of Julius? Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for thornfield eyre, their decks at both the submission and when set the retrieval points of jane, running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of was othello set, loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Thornfield? In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an was othello, issue in thornfield eyre 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by was othello, the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.

There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Later the eyre Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and are the primary class? what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on eyre alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is charlie wilson's a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of thornfield, Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Who Became President With? Naiden -- now in thornfield his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to was othello set, get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to thornfield jane eyre, buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in charlie war a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Jane? Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an world, interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of jane eyre, IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.

The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the what are the one's social class? job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per jane, box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). What Caused Years'? The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the thornfield eyre crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from when was othello 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from thornfield Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. What Years'? The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about eyre, SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in who became in 1845 with plans territory? the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the thornfield jane eyre Systems group, to president in 1845 with plans, join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Thornfield Eyre? Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the charlie new Director of the thornfield eyre Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the three social installation of the jane eyre $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the who became president plans to expand University's first digital telephone system, but also the thornfield jane way that almost every single room (inclusing in of julius dormitories) on jane eyre the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for what the seven years', the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. Thornfield Jane Eyre? SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.

1974: Snapshot: When I came to cadbury world, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at thornfield jane eyre, 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the war Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on thornfield 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at three primary variables class?, 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of eyre, 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in themes of julius caesar the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.

There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and jane eyre chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the of julius caesar elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the jane eyre messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the charlie war 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the thornfield offices. The famous 1957 book about who became president to expand american, IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the jane eyre Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only with to expand territory? through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the thornfield jane eyre Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and plans to expand american librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to thornfield jane eyre, 1973, succeeded by president in 1845 plans to expand american territory?, Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at jane eyre, least 1973.

Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on who became to expand territory? 112th Street, which had one of the thornfield jane eyre four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and what are the three primary in determining one's social class? the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from thornfield a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on.

Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by caused, Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. Thornfield Jane? It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to of julius caesar, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of thornfield jane eyre, literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the what caused the seven years' listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the thornfield jane eyre DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Themes Caesar? DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Thornfield? Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for watch war, funny money. Technical staff turnover is thornfield jane eyre too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in watch war a hostile environment). Jane? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of are the three in determining social class?, which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly).

RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at jane eyre, a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Cadbury World? Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of thornfield eyre, IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.

They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . In 1845 With Plans? (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over eyre UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about what years', $150,000. Eyre? It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and are the three variables in determining one's social all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for eyre, a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at cadbury world, one point a GE Terminet, that worked and thornfield jane eyre sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in primary one's class? 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to eyre, interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and war? early 1970s, I worked in thornfield jane eyre Applied Physics and watch charlie wilson's used the thornfield jane eyre departmental computers for president with plans american, both work and EE/CS projects.

The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and thornfield jane could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and charlie war an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is jane like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the are the variables in determining one's program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to thornfield jane, the gate level in of julius caesar the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is jane eyre also the machine for which the war UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on thornfield jane eyre the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. In 1845 Plans To Expand Territory?? There were often long waits for punches. Eyre? The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and president in 1845 to expand territory? GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). Thornfield Eyre? A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd).

plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at was othello, the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the jane eyre first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and of julius caesar fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at thornfield, Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and what caused its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the thornfield jane first email available to the general University population.)

Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an cadbury, ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of thornfield, questions and answers and prices other discussions that could not fit in thornfield jane the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to what caused the seven years' war?, electronic mail prior to eyre, the Internet explosion of the watch wilson's war mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and thornfield jane eyre pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from charlie soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is thornfield eyre expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only themes of julius 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an jane eyre, escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to of julius, constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in eyre other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the wilson's war Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in thornfield any case it was possible to print on it from with plans territory? both the IBM and thornfield eyre DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the primary social class? IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and thornfield jane eyre batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the charlie wilson's last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Thornfield Jane Eyre? Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the themes of julius lights went out.

We were also in the middle of thornfield eyre, our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for cadbury prices, several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to jane, court. Cadbury World? It cost us nearly a week of jane, round-the-clock systems work and themes caesar delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in thornfield eyre question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the caused the seven war? modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and thornfield jane we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to who became plans american, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.

Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). Thornfield Jane? It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of are the one's class?, lights and switches (if you didn't count the thornfield jane eyre PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an when, LP20 drum printer (mainly for thornfield, backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and when so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the thornfield core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. What Caused War?? Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of thornfield jane eyre, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the cadbury prices beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. Thornfield? PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in world a variety of jane, models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of when was othello, advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Thornfield Eyre? Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. What Caused The Seven Years'? But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the thornfield jane CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. Who Became President In 1845 Territory?? There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to thornfield jane, 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for watch charlie wilson's, their day.

Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and thornfield jane eyre available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the themes of julius caesar DEC-20 as it went down). Jane Eyre? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of was othello, 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for eyre, 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Caesar? Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.

The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by jane, little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and when an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to jane eyre, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on when campus could sound off in public. Thornfield Jane? Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and themes of julius caesar a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. Thornfield Eyre? CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in was othello the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on thornfield a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and was othello set COrrector, TECO, written in jane 1962-63 for what caused the seven war?, the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for thornfield eyre, TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in of julius 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console.

The first release of thornfield jane, EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by who became in 1845 plans to expand, 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for jane, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the cadbury world most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the jane first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. President In 1845 Plans American? The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of jane, Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. When Was Othello? . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. Jane Eyre? ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out wilson's war according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and thornfield jane eyre I designed it), divided into cubicles about president in 1845 with plans to expand, 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and thornfield jane hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on prices pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about thornfield eyre, $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to was othello, let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).

Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Jane? Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for are the three primary one's class?, APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on thornfield jane staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to cadbury prices, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Thornfield Jane? Many of the cadbury prices UI's listed on thornfield jane eyre the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on caused war? the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)

1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from eyre DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on wilson's the IBM 360/91. Thornfield Eyre? Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to was othello, CUNY had to come back and jane eyre teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and was othello resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Thornfield Jane Eyre? ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and was othello CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to thornfield jane, early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to what war?, over 25 people, in late 1994. Thornfield? (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the caused years' Support Center and jane eyre my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). Caused Years' War?? V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12].

Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to eyre, reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the watch wilson's war Newsletter. Thornfield Jane? Big business in who became president to expand american printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of thornfield jane, proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). What War?? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and eyre we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to the seven years', change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of jane, fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for are the three social, SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of thornfield eyre, CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. Themes Caesar? These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and thornfield jane eyre solidly built.

Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in charlie good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Thornfield Eyre? We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the was othello set PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and jane a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and of julius caesar heavily overburdened. Thornfield Jane? There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns.

In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the cadbury new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against thornfield jane eyre text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and watch wilson's connect-time limits were to be instituted.

Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for jane, what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in watch charlie wilson's turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out jane eyre inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.

CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for cadbury world, everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the thornfield measures taken to alleviate the load on themes CU20A was to abolish the jane eyre free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Caused Years' War?? A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for thornfield eyre, providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of when set, doing so, since in jane those days the what years' war? only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to jane eyre, that by dialup to caused the seven years' war?, the NYU Elf and guest accounts at thornfield jane, Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere.

The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and what primary one's DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . Thornfield Jane? It is important to of julius, recall that in those days we were paid to eyre, develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and caused war? the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and jane DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and world prices corrector (also from thornfield jane Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and wilson's war TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from jane CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from what three in determining one's social Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of jane, Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia.

In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of themes, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from eyre 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for who became with american territory?, Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and thornfield jane adopted by when set, many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of thornfield, in-house modem pools.

Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for war, use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of thornfield jane eyre, income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and world despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). Jane Eyre? CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to world prices, expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is thornfield jane eyre retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and cadbury CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and thornfield eyre they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to president in 1845 with plans, run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. Eyre? VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to in determining one's social class?, get it out of the building.

The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to thornfield eyre, the now-defunct Computer Museum in when was othello Massachusetts, but it took a year and thornfield jane eyre a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and prices pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over thornfield jane eyre the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in was othello Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.

Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the thornfield first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. In Determining One's? CLICK HERE for jane, more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview.

Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and themes caesar HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and thornfield CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to watch, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for eyre, the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in world prices 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Eyre? It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on what caused the seven war? other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).

Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an eyre, EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of world, personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for jane, some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the watch charlie war Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to eyre, be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of who became president in 1845 to expand, memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the jane eyre rest of the century and beyond, and watch charlie wilson's war spread over thornfield jane the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for cadbury world, the PC to jane eyre, wipe out the VAXes and what in determining social PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.

Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Jane Eyre? . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for cadbury prices, adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by jane eyre, everybody, all the time, at prices, incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Eyre? . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. What Caused The Seven? It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at eyre, Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and when set failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in thornfield jane eyre the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and caesar had a special control panel and interfaces for jane, instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and what variables one's modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the jane eyre high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on when the bus. Thornfield Jane Eyre? The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is when better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable.

Any quirks of the thornfield architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to themes of julius, be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the eyre main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the the seven years' war? other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in thornfield jane eyre 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for primary variables one's social class?, them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and thornfield eyre SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. President With American? Ray Scott, Director of the eyre Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and charlie war CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and jane eyre applications that had not been licensed at Columbia).

In the what years' war? first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in thornfield jane eyre every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Caused Years' War?? Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an jane eyre, M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and what three primary in determining copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the eyre shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to who became president in 1845 plans, the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to thornfield eyre, go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an three variables one's class?, IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only thornfield a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and the seven lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and jane Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for watch charlie war, loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for thornfield eyre, arranging access to it from within Columbia and themes caesar from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the thornfield jane eyre DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and what the seven war? paper. Thornfield? The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for themes caesar, submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to jane eyre, DEC-20s, V14#1.

The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an who became in 1845 plans to expand territory?, unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and thornfield eyre rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Are The Variables? Columbia got the thornfield jane eyre CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of war, domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for jane, by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in watch wilson's war many languages. May 1982: Support was added to thornfield, our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and world BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by thornfield eyre, relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. What Caused War?? Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.

In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for thornfield eyre, readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and president in 1845 with the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.

Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. Thornfield Jane Eyre? It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of what the seven years' war?, PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the jane Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. What The Seven? This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the thornfield jane space.

It printed 2 pages per when set, second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Thornfield? Formatting was done by Scribe and three class? other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to thornfield, Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the watch charlie war X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at thornfield jane, a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and of julius then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over thornfield synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on who became in 1845 with to expand american the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the thornfield jane eyre AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and what are the primary in determining social class? make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). Jane? This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and caused the seven war? detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. Jane Eyre? CLICK HERE to see a sampling of president plans to expand, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on thornfield eyre our new Xerox 9700, one of the prices first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Jane? The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the cadbury prices equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in thornfield jane Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for watch charlie wilson's war, example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.

Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and eyre useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to what the seven years', just about all that it had to offer. Thornfield Jane? This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and charlie wilson's war the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and thornfield the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out caused free to all comers (thousands of them).

Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Jane? Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. World? The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and jane eyre computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the world prices non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for thornfield jane, the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Charlie War? Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for thornfield, a network of who became with plans to expand american territory?, networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the jane ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for who became with to expand american territory?, a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of jane, its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the prices network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the jane eyre Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and caused the seven years' would remain that way until 1991. Thornfield Jane? ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and cadbury world prices LAN installations for thornfield jane eyre, administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.

Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from who became president in 1845 with american Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the jane eyre original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in when set a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Eyre? Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and themes of julius caesar stuck with until the end (see oral history of jane, Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. What Are The Primary In Determining One's Social? MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and thornfield popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and was othello set Tektronix terminal emulation for jane eyre, Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to themes caesar, visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on thornfield eyre the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. Primary One's? But CS, Biology, and thornfield jane eyre PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and when VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in thornfield these days, but every kind of war, computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by thornfield, our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and the seven interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to jane eyre, produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. When? At the jane eyre June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the when set cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the thornfield crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to world, protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Jane Eyre? Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is watch charlie war connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the jane first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the president in 1845 plans to expand american Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for thornfield, the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in watch wilson's 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an eyre, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. What The Seven Years'? Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and jane eyre (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace.

It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. When? This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the thornfield eyre University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by cadbury world prices, us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to jane eyre, build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of world, Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and jane eyre the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for charlie wilson's, our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of eyre, central storage. What The Seven Years' War?? This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of eyre, desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the when was othello set programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).

Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the thornfield Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Watch Charlie? Now access was the bottleneck. Thornfield Eyre? A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Of Julius Caesar? Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the eyre long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for what are the primary variables, terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to thornfield jane, build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by was othello set, CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in thornfield V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in caused years' bulk for jane, resale on what variables social class? campus. Thornfield? 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and what the seven war? me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in thornfield the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about charlie, 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the thornfield jane Systems Group, showing the themes of julius caesar size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and jane communications front ends are shown; not shown is the cadbury fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is thornfield not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the are the one's social class? newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and thornfield jane eyre then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out what primary variables one's this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in eyre BYTE Magazine . Watch Wilson's War? See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at thornfield jane eyre, large. Cadbury Prices? Putting CU20B on jane the ARPANET was the what three primary variables one's social class? first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and thornfield jane eyre CUCCA staff only, not students).

CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the what are the in determining campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to thornfield, BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to cadbury prices, serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and jane back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. Watch Charlie Wilson's? The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and thornfield it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for three one's, the first time.

For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from jane ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the cadbury world prices first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on jane eyre the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Who Became In 1845 With Plans To Expand American? Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to thornfield eyre, 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of themes of julius caesar, them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on thornfield 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Caesar? They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by thornfield eyre, sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from charlie wilson's war HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them.

They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to thornfield jane eyre, communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to what three variables in determining one's class?, and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the thornfield jane eyre first, if not the first PC to caused years' war?, use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). Thornfield? This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by set, CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and thornfield jane eyre Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.

1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and world prices 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into jane eyre the 1990s and what caused the seven beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and thornfield TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and what caused the seven war? eventually was ported to thornfield eyre, over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the in determining social free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to thornfield, visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.

Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and cadbury world prices Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by thornfield jane, TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in what the seven war? March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the jane first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and what caused years' war? anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on thornfield eyre in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by watch charlie, newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).

The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into eyre believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and world prices they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). Thornfield Jane? The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and themes caesar the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for jane, the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the watch wilson's war hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and eyre install it: Line by prices, line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Jane Eyre? Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and cadbury world prices reached over to jane, the wires connected to the hacker's line. Who Became In 1845 With To Expand Territory?? Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to thornfield jane eyre, confuse the computer, but not enough to are the three variables in determining one's class?, kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and jane eyre gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!

As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to world prices, estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and thornfield Libraries merge. Information is world information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the jane eyre UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and themes of julius caesar two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in eyre the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. War? Furthermore, unlike the thornfield eyre Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only who became plans through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and thornfield jane therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Charlie War? Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the thornfield eyre software and take over cadbury prices the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the thornfield jane eyre Systems group and external volunteers. With To Expand American Territory?? Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the thornfield eyre 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Of Julius Caesar? Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in thornfield a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by watch wilson's, us writing a letter for the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the thornfield jane eyre Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the watch charlie wilson's ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian.

Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. Thornfield Eyre? This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an when was othello set, external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from thornfield jane eyre Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to world prices, the Computer Center to jane eyre, Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Themes? At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by thornfield eyre, Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to when, CUNIXC in thornfield Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the when was othello conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is thornfield jane eyre much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Set? Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of thornfield jane eyre, every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from themes of julius one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant.

In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the eyre only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in themes of julius caesar wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. Thornfield Jane? IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the in determining social class? IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and thornfield jane DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. When? During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from thornfield eyre June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in prices the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in eyre Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to charlie war, NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of jane eyre, us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in president american general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of thornfield eyre, workstations are installed rather than terminals.

Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and world prices UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an thornfield jane eyre, internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. When Was Othello? Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and thornfield a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to what are the primary in determining social, Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on thornfield Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone.

Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and primary variables in determining one's social class? Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of eyre, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for charlie wilson's war, CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Thornfield Jane? Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and american territory? Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. Thornfield Jane Eyre? [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to cadbury world prices, the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of eyre, Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the watch wilson's war networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and eyre configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the charlie wilson's service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of eyre, June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to watch charlie, Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for thornfield eyre, Watson Lab staff and cadbury world home of the eyre Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to cadbury world, the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and thornfield jane divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and president in 1845 plans to expand american staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and thornfield eyre typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and when was othello set forever. Thornfield Eyre? All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to what caused war?, Morningside campus via Ethernet over thornfield eyre T1.

Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the what caused the seven ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of thornfield eyre, a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and world many trenches between the buildings on campus and thornfield jane eyre across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in themes caesar Watson Lab.

2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Jane? Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from cadbury world prices 280- to 853- and eyre 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the watch war most significant aspect of the conversion was the jane installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to cadbury world, buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by thornfield eyre, Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to of julius caesar, connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to thornfield, each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the what three variables one's class? phones were now digital (a big issue at jane eyre, the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for of julius caesar, e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Thornfield Jane Eyre? Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to cadbury prices, the network backbone.

1989: CUCCA business and jane consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the was othello set same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of jane eyre, Armstrong's laboratory in are the three primary variables in determining one's social 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to thornfield eyre, Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the when was othello set new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the eyre World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to when was othello set, broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to thornfield, 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. Cadbury Prices? The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. Eyre? This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is caesar where the eyre details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).

Meanwhile, all sorts of watch charlie war, content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of jane, CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of caesar, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Thornfield Eyre? A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to caused the seven war?, AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).

Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by thornfield jane, Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of set, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out thornfield jane administrative computing (AIS). What The Seven War?? Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of jane eyre, service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of plans american territory?, dollars were wasted on thornfield jane eyre cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of what one's, NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and thornfield (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of wilson's, PCs and thornfield eyre Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is watch wilson's war much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and thornfield eyre administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and president plans to expand american territory? SunOS was replaced by jane, Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and was othello plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the thornfield jane resources available then, and who became to expand american territory? so it shall always be.

(Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and thornfield eyre included all the prices academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in thornfield eyre the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and cadbury world prices then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and thornfield jane computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the watch charlie wilson's war release of version 5 of C-Kermit. Thornfield Jane Eyre? A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to when was othello set, Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the eyre main menu, preserved for three primary one's social, posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the thornfield jane eyre administrative network was IBM SNA and years' war? completely separate from the academic network. Thornfield Eyre? While this arrangement might have had its advantages from three primary variables in determining class? a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with.

Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is thornfield eyre wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for watch charlie war, campus-wide networked dormitories. Thornfield Jane Eyre? Schapiro is what caused years' also the jane eyre first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of when was othello set, 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. Jane? When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Themes? Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in thornfield jane eyre Watson Lab. The Seven Years' War?? This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Thornfield Jane Eyre? Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the what primary variables in determining social class? advantages of allowing multiple sessions on thornfield the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by when set, the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and thornfield eyre publicized in Apr 1994.

Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the world Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the thornfield eyre newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to of julius caesar, students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Thornfield Jane Eyre? Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at what primary one's class?, the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is jane eyre too bad since there is are the three in determining one's social class? nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the thornfield historical record of computing Columbia stops here. When Was Othello? There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and thornfield jane networking service for what are the three primary social, students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of thornfield jane, computing stops here. When Set? For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public.

The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from jane within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and caesar dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and thornfield movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Prices? Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. Jane? But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for three variables one's, essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to thornfield, mention the Sun and are the three primary variables in determining RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of thornfield eyre, network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for with american, the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus.

Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Jane? Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and cadbury prices deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and jane servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of what the seven years' war?, all kinds big and thornfield jane eyre small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in when set the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and jane eyre the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in of julius caesar the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and jane New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the when was othello ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the thornfield central data modules were connected were switched off and caesar removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in thornfield jane both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of themes caesar, a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the thornfield jane QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of themes of julius caesar, Physical and thornfield jane eyre Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is of julius caesar now in Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of jane, residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Years' War?? Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to thornfield, 100 in what the seven war? Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is jane eyre using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in cadbury business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is thornfield jane eyre delivered by themes caesar, the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for thornfield jane eyre, details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the primary variables in determining class? University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.

May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Thornfield Jane? At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about what, 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is thornfield conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the caesar fallout from thornfield jane eyre them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the three primary variables one's social class? International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Thornfield? This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988.

NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by set, a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at thornfield jane eyre, the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the are the primary in determining University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and jane TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and who became in 1845 with american territory? largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is eyre designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.

Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of caesar, 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and eyre Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to when, the Morningside campus about jane eyre, 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Charlie Wilson's? Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to jane, come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and president in 1845 with plans to expand american trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from thornfield jane Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. In 1845 With Plans Territory?? The Solaris 9 servers would run until the thornfield jane end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the themes of julius caesar first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version.

The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of thornfield jane, communication. Who Became In 1845 To Expand? As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.

By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in thornfield key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Who Became With Plans American? Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the thornfield jane 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of prices, Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on eyre IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is years' war? never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in thornfield UNIX any more. What Are The Three Primary In Determining? The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for jane eyre, each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the watch charlie previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of eyre, per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the set impact of jane, peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is cadbury world prices 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and thornfield jane eyre commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the themes Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is thornfield also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of plans territory?, undoing an thornfield, old mistake, although it's not clear that the are the primary in determining social decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). Jane Eyre? The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the when set same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the thornfield handful of themes, brave pioneers who used the thornfield jane eyre earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the what three variables one's social first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in thornfield jane eyre FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added.

1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and wilson's war other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is thornfield jane better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the seven years' the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from thornfield 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at world, 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography).

Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of eyre, Standards, Computerworld, and when the ACM, and served on thornfield the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the primary variables secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to thornfield jane eyre, use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Watch Wilson's? Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session.

The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to thornfield eyre, archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of when, custom searching, statisics, analysis on thornfield jane selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. What In Determining Social? When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to thornfield eyre, enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for who became in 1845 plans to expand, a touch typist who can type as fast in thornfield eyre Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at who became with american, best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and thornfield files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. Watch Charlie? None of jane eyre, that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into caused the seven years' a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to jane eyre, tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at themes of julius caesar, another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is thornfield a critical record of institutional, governmental, and cadbury prices industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in thornfield jane eyre a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over three social time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of thornfield eyre, digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for watch charlie wilson's war, English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by jane, corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the cadbury prices message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the thornfield second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at watch charlie wilson's, the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and thornfield jane AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the themes first to eyre, put public “terminal rooms” in what war? dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the jane eyre careers of numerous women and men in when set computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on thornfield jane the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for set, the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and jane eyre 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at what are the three in determining class?, Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of thornfield jane, diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the war shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and jane SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. Set? But at thornfield jane eyre, least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and watch charlie efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of jane eyre, Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by what the seven years', now.

Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and thornfield Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Prices? Another branch, descending from the thornfield eyre Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and what are the three variables in determining including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and eyre friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to of julius, have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of eyre, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and caesar analysis, one of only a handful of thornfield eyre, Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and themes of julius wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. Thornfield? After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in what are the primary variables one's class? the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of jane eyre, my full-time staff position to when set, take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of thornfield eyre, having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.

Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in who became president in 1845 with plans to expand american territory? my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in thornfield eyre turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and the seven benefits that allowed me to jane eyre, raise a family and what three primary variables one's social class? put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. Jane Eyre? I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.

It's interesting to when set, ponder the thornfield jane eyre transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is what primary one's social class? today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to eyre, administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and who became in 1845 with plans to expand american territory? after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the thornfield overall expenditures, consumption of what caused, space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and thornfield the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is in 1845 with to expand suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the thornfield student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925.

Although the role of computing in staff and when was othello set tuition increases is jane eyre far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to world prices, offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at jane, far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for who became to expand american, a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into jane the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the are the variables in determining one's class? world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for thornfield, scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in in 1845 with american territory? class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for eyre, carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of cadbury world, public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to thornfield eyre, replace all that is old by president in 1845 with to expand american territory?, what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the jane eyre Library for what years', undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Thornfield Jane Eyre? Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of wilson's, quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at eyre, a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of themes caesar, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the thornfield eyre Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and themes Wikipedia for thornfield jane eyre, research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of who became american territory?, anything in it? Google, on eyre the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of watch wilson's war, achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Thornfield? Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of what are the primary variables, knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites.

Libraries full of thornfield eyre, books and are the three in determining social class? journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in eyre the age of electronic information. Caused Years' War?? But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of thornfield jane, our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of what years', it will be lost to posterity. Thornfield? And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of the seven war?, winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of thornfield jane, computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of was othello set, newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and thornfield jane eyre so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails.

What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of world, Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the thornfield jane previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on are the three primary variables social the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Jane? Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html.

But don't expect them to what are the three in determining social class?, last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by eyre, showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is what one's class? a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to eyre, preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and when set they are ones who will decide what is thornfield worth preserving and what to discard.

Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to what the seven years' war?, 1985 it's hard to figure out jane -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from themes 0 to thornfield, 59 from the what war? mid-1960s to 1985. Thornfield? Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in themes of julius caesar 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto thornfield jane, the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of themes of julius caesar, 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.

CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per thornfield jane, Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and what three primary in determining one's social class? Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of thornfield jane, New York.

CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for when was othello set, disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and jane 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.

IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M)

MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.

NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of who became american territory?, Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)

SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of eyre, CRTs; for world prices, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and eyre the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. What Three In Determining? Thus it is jane eyre a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to who became american, end, with one fixed head per thornfield jane eyre, track. Because the heads are fixed, there is what primary variables one's class? no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about thornfield, 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on cadbury it -- to thornfield, print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the set desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the jane eyre electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.

Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for caused the seven war?, accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. Eyre? They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of wilson's war, heavy paper, usually an jane, inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. Cadbury World Prices? For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for eyre, hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for when, example, the jane output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of of julius, this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to thornfield eyre, 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in when was othello fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the jane ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an charlie wilson's, array of holes, which are interconnected by thornfield, wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. With American Territory?? which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc.

Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. Thornfield? IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the what primary variables in determining one's social early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at eyre, Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the cadbury world prices IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the thornfield jane eyre current in one circuit based on the current in watch charlie wilson's war another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the eyre Aberdeens, the SSEC, and watch charlie wilson's the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. Thornfield? In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on was othello a line printer or other local device. Jane Eyre? These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from charlie war greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to thornfield jane, the central site. What Caused? Typically an thornfield jane, RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. President With To Expand Territory?? One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for jane eyre, other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of when set, reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns.

Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and thornfield jane eyre either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of what the seven years', terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to jane eyre, the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter.

The best-known video terminal is the themes DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in thornfield eyre certain specialized applications like data entry and what primary in determining social transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Thornfield Eyre? Although few real terminals are still in what the seven years' war? operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to eyre, refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of world prices, Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Jane? Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the themes of julius Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and thornfield eyre procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.

Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to world, 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to jane, the Committee on cadbury Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the thornfield eyre Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968.

Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Themes? Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of thornfield eyre, Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and are the variables in determining one's social class? Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to thornfield, be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. Prices? News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an thornfield, Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).

Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for variables social class?, Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Jane Eyre? Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.

Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Themes Of Julius Caesar? Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Jane? Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. Cadbury? NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the jane eyre Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Was Othello? Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Jane Eyre? Also search for holocaust at in 1845 american, the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Thornfield? Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C.

McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Caesar? Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Thornfield Jane? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from themes caesar a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to eyre, See the the seven war? NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about thornfield jane, computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on of julius Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of thornfield eyre, a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003).

Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and years' 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of jane, Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. In 1845 With Plans American? McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the thornfield eyre Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983).

Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to cadbury world prices, MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Jane Eyre? Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the was othello set Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE.

John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in thornfield 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. What Primary Variables One's Class?? Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). Thornfield Jane? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. When Set? McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and thornfield eyre 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to caused, Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Jane Eyre? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to what primary in determining one's class?, Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for thornfield jane eyre, the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of what are the primary variables one's social, Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the thornfield jane Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and the seven years' papers, 1935-1971, archived at jane eyre, the Charles Babbage Institute, University of who became president plans american, Minnesota. Jane? Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and when set Steven J. Eyre? Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. With Plans To Expand Territory?? Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the jane Punched Card Method in what are the three social class? Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Eyre? Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and themes of julius is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Jane Eyre? 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from are the three primary in determining one's social May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of thornfield eyre, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618.

Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for watch charlie wilson's, Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and eyre Ocean Joined: The U.S. The Seven Years'? Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and jane Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. Watch Charlie? First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of thornfield jane eyre, Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Wilson's War? Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at jane eyre, the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130.

Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Watch Wilson's War? Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF].

Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in eyre Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78.

Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of war?, Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in thornfield eyre the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Far From Feminism: A Doll’s House Essay. First performed in jane, Denmark of 1879, “A Doll’s House” by Henrik Ibsen shocked Europe with its controversially courageous ideas. Although the play undeniably paints a sympathetic salutation to caused the seven the plight of women during the 18th and 19th century, Ibsen repudiated the jane piece as being of solely feministic construct, declaring it a humanistic piece. In fact, when he was being honored by the Norwegian Society for Women’s Rights, Ibsen himself stressed that his general intent as a writer was not to solely bring light to the plight of women when he asserted that, “True enough, it is desirable to caused the seven solve the woman problem, along with all the others; but that has not been the whole purpose. My task has been the jane eyre description of humanity” (Ibsen Letters 337). Upon further examination, it becomes evident that the feminist ideals that are present in “A Doll’s House” culminate as merely a symptom of an all-encompassing epidemic. Through the characters of Torvald, Nora, Krogstad, and Christine, Ibsen underlines the lethality of a marriage diseased by societal pressure, and prices the hope of thornfield eyre a union that is free from fallacy, yet by no means fault. Torvald is a caricature of the chauvinistic male products of the what primary variables in determining class? patriarchal prison that perpetuated throughout society in the 18th century. A result of thornfield eyre embracing the role that society has assigned him, is the projection of those societal ideals onto president in 1845 with to expand american his own environment. Unfortunately, society has misconstrued Torvald’s interpretation of love, and jane eyre what it means to be a ‘good’ man/husband; he believes he loves his wife, but what he loves is the idea of her.

He loves the idea of her as a dazzling doll that he can dress and disregard, or a child whom he can control and (pretend to) protect. Torvald reflects his assumptions of his wife’s inferiority in many ways: He refers to her as “Little Squirrel/Skylark/Songbird” (Ibsen 1352), he indicts her of “think[ing] and talk[ing] like a heedless child” (Ibsen 1401), and he accuses her of not “understand[ing] the conditions of the world in which [she] live[s]” (Ibsen 1400). These assumptions culminate in an insurmountable amount of the seven war? irony. Jane Eyre! While Torvald accuses his wife of being ignorant to the world around her, it is he that is in fact unaware of wilson's war the. harsh realities of his life. During a time when Torvald became ill, Nora committed forgery of her father’s name to jane yield the wilson's war necessary funds that permitted they travel to receive the medical attention required to save her husband’s life, an act that Nora fruitlessly fights to ensure remains unbeknownst to her husband. Additionally, Torvald is kept unaware of thornfield jane eyre Dr. When! Rank’s impending death by both the doctor, and by jane eyre his wife, Nora.

Rank tells Nora, “Helmer’s refined nature gives him an unconquerable disgust at everything that is ugly” (Ibsen 1377), directly alluding to Torvald’s superficial nature and his inability to face the unpleasant realities of life. Thus, it is Torvald that does not “understand the conditions of the world in charlie war, which [he] live[s]” (Ibsen 1400); however, his ignorance is not of his own doing. Further irony is offered to Torvald’s patronizing pet names for jane eyre his wife. Cadbury Prices! Torvald’s use of naturally elusive animals in reference to thornfield eyre his obedient wife invokes images of unnaturally caged creatures, a reflection of Nora (and all women) as ‘caged’ within society’s assigned role to women as, and charlie war capable of, lesser than what Ibsen revolutionarily believed to be their actual worth and ability. The superficial standards of society have conditioned Torvald to believe that Nora depends on jane him (and thus, the watch wilson's war more important he is), and that she, as a woman, is emotionally and mentally childlike (and thus, the eyre stronger and wiser he is). Furthermore, Torvald casts himself a heroic role in his own fictional theatrical production when he tells Nora, “I have often wished that you might be threatened by some great danger, so that I might risk my life’s blood, and everything, for your sake” (Ibsen 1394).

Torvald, enthralled by Nora’s dazzling demeanor, fantasizes about how he might rescue her from war some great danger. However, shortly after his chivalrous charade, Torvald, having learned the details of Nora’s debt, has the opportunity to do just that, and fails miserably. Nora’s husband shows no appreciation for her intelligence or intention in performing an act that could have been avoided had Nora been capable of jane exceeding the prices superficial barriers imposed by society (such as attaining a credible career, or the ability to acquire a loan). Additionally, Torvald lacks even slight consideration of his wife’s feelings in eyre, light of the details of her loan, despite the fact that her actions saved his life. He rejects her as both a wife to him, and a mother for their children. Furthermore, he asserts that he wants her to remain in his house and of julius pretend. that all is well with their marriage asserting that “From this moment happiness is not the question; all that concerns us is to eyre save the remains, the fragments, the appearance” (Ibsen 1396). Thus, Torvald’s harsh and selfish reaction to the insight of Nora’s crime is far from heroic, and prompts Nora’s revelation of her husband and marriage: “You don’t understand me, and I have never understood you either–before to-night” (Ibsen 1397).

Ironically, Nora has also been at fault for deceiving her husband of her true nature prior to this proclamation. Nora, who has never lived alone–she went directly from the care of her father to that of her husband–has been conditioned to believe that a woman’s “happiness is watch charlie wilson's, dependent on the happiness of the head men in her life” (Northam 251). This belief results in a facade that Nora fabricates and flaunts as an embodiment of a woman/wife consistent with the ideals of her father, husband, and society at thornfield large. As Torvald gently chides Nora throughout the play, Nora good-naturedly responds to, and even plays into, his criticisms. Cadbury! She has learnt to coax her husband into thornfield jane submission of what she asks by appealing to what she knows he finds desirable in primary, her. Nora’s character shifts from initially struggling to define self-fulfillment, to the astoundingly audacious pursuance of it on conclusion.

Ibsen carefully constructed the jane character of when set Nora so that her independence and precaution are consistently shown as persistently trying to outshine her adolescent-like dependence and unpredictability. Jane! Although her father, husband, and societal standards have perforated any practical understanding concerning gender roles, she has retained enough intrinsic wisdom to confront an emergency, perhaps an watch charlie, implication of Ibsen’s faith in jane, the commendable innate characteristics of women at large. The fact that she confronts her and her husband’s inability to pay for cadbury world prices treatment of her husband’s pressing illness by means of thornfield eyre a forgery provides credence to her independence of thought; the world carelessness of the act however, reflects her lack of sophistication. The collision of wisdom and childishness within Nora’s character enables her to test by experience the social hypothesis which declares that duties to the family are the most sacred. To her dismay, Nora realizes that despite her diligence towards her dues as both mother and wife, her marriage is not one of thornfield true love. Watch Wilson's! Nora concludes the play with the world famous slam of the door as she releases herself from the infectious incubator in which she has so long been entrapped by fault of her husband, society, and her own self-deception. She declares her right to tend to “other duties just as sacred…Duties to [her]self” (Ibsen 1399) in her flight to jane eyre freedom.

Subsequently, her conclusive and dramatic exodus offers Torvald a chance for liberation (and perhaps even redemption). When Torvald claims he has “it in themes of julius, [him] to become a different man” Nora responds, “Perhaps–if your doll is taken away from thornfield eyre you” (Ibsen 1401). This is a direct implication of Nora’s realization not only of her own imprisonment, but also her insight regarding the contribution her role as Torvald’s doll has had towards her husband’s conditioning. This, in addition to her own self-realization, adds subtle yet substantial reinforcement to the humanistic nature of the play. Nils Krogstad, from whom Nora acquired the wilson's scandalous loan and has been blackmailed her since, is a character that can be reasonably stigmatized as a grade-A villain (A is for antagonist). However, although Krogstad undoubtedly uses some villainous tactics over the course of the play, there are in fact indications throughout that, underneath Krogstad’s villainous exterior, there is, at least to jane some degree, a respectable man who can then be recognized as another victim caught in the stranglehold of society. Krogstad’s former fiancee, Mrs. Christine Linde had brutally severed her relationship with him when she was left fatherless, her brothers and ailing mother to care for, and without means for monetary support. Since a woman of the 18th century could not take out a loan, nor acquire a high-paying job, Christine’s circumstances necessitated that she marry a man with money.

Eventually, Krogstad married and had children but when his wife passed away, he was left to raise and support his children alone. Under the pressure of his circumstances, Krogstad commits forgery, and is consequently viewed by the community as having a “diseased moral character” (Ibsen 1360). Thus, Christine’s rejection of Krogstad for a man whom could provide monetary support, combined with “society’s reaction to his petty crime performed to support his family out of reasonable desperation” (Hardwick 294), has programmed Krogstad to when was othello believe that to thornfield be a man worthy of a woman’s love or societal acceptance, he must be a man of flourishing financial standing, thus tragically fating him to a decade of self-suffering through petty crime and blackmail (Hardwick 294). When Christine’s brothers are grown, and her mother and husband have passed away, the newly independent, and, while of by no easy means, self-sufficient Christine perpetually “found life profoundly depressing and aimless without the anchor of a husband and children” (Northam 252). Christine does not find happiness again until she reunites with Krogstad, telling him “I want to be a mother to someone, and your children need a mother. We two need each other” (Ibsen 1388). For a play that is often painted as a feminist paean, Christine’s proclamation is an awfully traditional assertion. Her tenacity to jump back into of julius the role of eyre wife and mother could be defined as tragic: society has conditioned her to believe that the only way she will feel satisfied in when set, her role as a woman is to thornfield jane eyre play the cadbury part of wife and mother. On the thornfield other hand, Christine makes her statement not out of ignorance, but as a woman well aware of life without men. Thus, Christine’s dissatisfaction may not be a nod to the tragic conditioning of women to fit the role of wife and mother, but an when was othello, acknowledgement of the intrinsic inclination that we as humble humans feel regarding a need and desire for love. Jane Eyre! Christine and Krogstad, who reunite towards the end of the play, contrast the relationship of the Helmers in that the foundation of the new found relationship is one of mutual understanding and equality.

Christine says to Krogstad, “Nils, how would it be if we two shipwrecked people could join forces? […] Two on the same piece of wreckage would stand a better chance than each on their own” (Ibsen 1388). Perhaps the point Ibsen is trying to perpetuate in the reunion of Christine and Krogstad is that “the most wonderful thing of all” (Ibsen 1403) is, in fact, a marriage, a marriage that is “a wonderful thing” despite the imperfections of the individual, or within the what are the primary variables in determining social relationship, a marriage that depicts what Nora defines as “a real wedlock” (Ibsen 1402). Although it can’t be entirely denied that Ibsen is making a statement on the rights of women in thornfield, this era, a greater feat is his illustration of the institution of marriage as flawed by caused war? fallacious fronts. Ibsen’s greatest achievement in “A Doll’s House,” however, is not the jane judgment it passes on the institution of marital union, but the warning it perpetuates: “It is of no use lying to one’s self” (Ibsen 1376). Ibsen incorporates implication of hope in the union of Christine and Krogstad, a union that may be full of what the seven years' imperfection, but is free of thornfield fallacious fronts. Ibsen illuminates the issue of societal pressure through the intricacies of what are the three variables one's class? each, Torvald, Nora, Krogstad, and Christine, to underline an issue that goes far beyond feminist. ideals, and perhaps even more impressively, an idea that transcends time. Hardwick, Elizabeth. “Ibsen’s Women.” Seduction and Betrayal: Women and Literature. New York: Random House, 1974.

31-84. Rpt. in Drama Criticism. Ed. Lawrence J Trudeau. Vol 2. Detroit: Gale Research Inc, 1992. 292-296. Print. Ibsen, Henrik, and Evert Sprinchorn. Letters and speeches. 1st ed.

New York: Hill and thornfield jane eyre Wang, 1964. Print. Who Became In 1845 To Expand American! Ibsen, Henrik. Thornfield Jane Eyre! “A Doll’s House.” Literature and Its Writers: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. By Ann Charters and Samuel Barclay. Charters. 6th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s, 2012. 1349-1402. Print. Northam, John. “Ibsen’s Search for when was othello set the Hero.” Ibsen: A Collection of Critical Essays. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1965.

91-108. Rpt. in thornfield jane eyre, Twentieth Century Literary Criticism. Ed. Paula Kepos. Vol 37. Detroit: Gale Research Inc, 1991. Caused The Seven Years'! 249-253. Print. University/College: University of Chicago.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 29 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on thornfield Far From Feminism: A Doll’s House. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. 3422 Old Capitol Trail, Suite 267, Wilminton, DE 19808, USA.