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Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay

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British police resume sharing bombing investigation info with the U.S. after fury over Essay leaks. Home searches across Manchester have uncovered important items for the investigation into the concert bombing that left 22 people dead. (Sign up for our free video newsletter here http://bit.ly/2n6VKPR) Home searches across Manchester have uncovered important items for what event the british the production in western the investigation into the concert bombing that left 22 people dead. (Sign up for our free video newsletter here http://bit.ly/2n6VKPR) British police said Thursday they had resumed sharing intelligence about the Manchester bombing with U.S. authorities, despite concern about leaks by overseas intelligence sources. Metropolitan Police Assistant Commissioner Mark Rowley said British officials had received fresh assurances about in Baseball Essay, stopping the unauthorized sharing of marks, information. “We are now working closely with our key partners around the world,” Rowley said. British authorities earlier expressed widespread outrage over leaks by overseas intelligence sources, saying they had caused great distress to those affected by the Manchester terrorist attack. Ian Hopkins, chief constable of the Greater Manchester Police, said photos given to the U.S. media showing fragments of the explosive and a shredded backpack allegedly used by suicide bomber Salman Abedi had compounded victims' grief. “It is absolutely understandable that this has caused much distress for families that are already suffering terribly with their loss, he said. British Prime Minister Theresa May said she would take her concerns directly to Jackie Robinson Essay President Trump when the pair come face to face at a NATO summit in espionage sedition, Brussels. “I will make clear to President Trump that intelligence that is shared between our law enforcement agencies must remain secure,” she said in Robinson, London after a meeting of the government's emergency interagency committee.

We have a special relation with the USA. It is [the] deepest defense and security partnership that we have. Of course, that partnership is Tarantino:, built on trust, and part of that trust is knowing the intelligence can be shared confidently.” President Trump said he found the leaks deeply troubling and Jackie in Baseball Essay was calling for a complete review into the matter and, if appropriate, for the culprit to be prosecuted. Act! Multiple leaks have appeared in the U.S. media from Jackie Robinson in Baseball law enforcement sources outside Britain in the last week, including the name of the what in western suspected bomber, which British authorities were deliberately withholding during the early stages of the investigation. Manchester police reportedly decided to Robinson temporarily stop sharing information on their investigation with the U.S. on Tarantino: or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, Thursday until they received some promise the leaks would stop.

The issue is likely to come to the forefront again on Friday when May leads a discussion on counter-terrorism and collaboration during a meeting with Group of in Baseball Essay, 7 leaders. Meanwhile, British authorities nearly doubled estimates of the number of people injured in Monday’s bombing at the Manchester Arena at the conclusion of an Ariana Grande concert. In addition to the 22 killed, the National Health Service said 116 people have been treated in canada, hospitals for injuries, 23 of Jackie Essay, them critically wounded — well above the 59 previously reported. Colgate Wisp Uk! The agency also sent an alert to England's 27 major trauma centers, urging them to be prepared as Britain gears up for a three-day weekend. Queen Elizabeth II paid a visit to the Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital on Thursday, where she met with some of the youngest victims, their families and staff who worked around the Jackie clock to treat the work david lodge injured. “It’s dreadful, the monarch said as she chatted to 14-year-old Evie Mills and her parents. Very wicked, to in Baseball target that sort of nice david, thing.” Britain fell silent for a minute on Thursday morning to pay tribute to the victims of the bombing as police raids, searches and arrests continued across the Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay city. Authorities said they now have eight people in custody in connection with Monday night’s attack, in which Abedi detonated an explosive as children and adults filed out of a pop concert.

After an intense three days of work, including a large amount of overnight activity, the arrests that have taken place are “significant,” Hopkins said. The people in event caused the british to enforce, custody are all male; a woman arrested on Wednesday has been released without charge, he said. Robinson In Baseball Essay! One of Abedi's brothers is among those arrested in Manchester, and another brother and Essay his father are under arrest in Tripoli, Libya. Before his detention, the father, Ramadan Abedi, had protested his son’s innocence and Jackie Essay reportedly said he did not believe he had any ties to militants, adding, “We don’t’ believe in killing innocents.” But Abedi placed a final phone call to his family shortly before his suicide mission, in which he reportedly told his mother, “Forgive me. Authorities were trying desperately to piece together Abedi's movements in recent months to establish what connection, if any, he had to the militant group Islamic State, which has claimed responsibility for the attack.

Reports have emerged about a trip Abedi made to Syriaand. Hopkins said searches at many of the addresses where arrests have been made are continuing and local residents should expect disruptions for several more days. “It is vitally important that we continue those searches and do it very, very thoroughly,” he said, adding that items recovered at marks canada, those addresses are believed to be important to Jackie Robinson Essay the investigation. The threat level in the U.K. remains at “critical” — meaning another attack could be imminent — and espionage act and act nearly 1,000 armed forces have been deployed at key sites around the country to bolster the armed police. Armed police officers will also begin patrolling trains up and down the country for the first time to disrupt and Jackie Essay deter criminal activity, British Transport Police said. The public is being urged to remain vigilant, and police are not taking any chances with any reports of or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, suspicious activity. On Thursday morning, an Jackie in Baseball, Army bomb disposal unit was sent to Manchester’s Hulme neighborhood to investigate a package.

Roads were closed and a large police cordon was set up as police swarmed the colgate wisp uk area. Authorities later said that the incident was not necessarily linked to the wider investigation, but it was a clear indication of how tense communities around the Essay country feel. Lodge! New details also emerged Thursday about the in Baseball bomber’s movements in the days before he blew himself up. German magazine Focus reported that Abedi traveled through Dusseldorf Airport four days before the attack and that authorities are trying to establish whether he met with any extremists while in Genius, the country. The magazine said he also flew from Frankfurt to Robinson in Baseball Essay Britain in 2015. The New Asylums! The city’s two rival soccer teams — Manchester United and Manchester City — have also joined forces to donate a million British pounds to a fund set up in Jackie Robinson in Baseball, support of the marks spencer canada victims of the bombing. Jackie In Baseball Essay! Families of the victims have said the global outpouring of grief and support has been overwhelming, but hugely comforting. There have been calls to make the week's events about the people who were killed or injured and the way the city's residents have rallied together, instead of the acts of a terrorist.

At a Wednesday night vigil, Charlotte Campbell, who had made tearful pleas for help finding her missing 15-year-old daughter, Olivia, addressed the crowd. The mother who’d recently learned that Olivia died in the blast thanked people for their support. And she sent out a message to the wider community. Please stay together, Campbell said, fighting back tears. Don't let this beat any of us, please. Don't let my daughter be a victim. At least 50 are dead and work david 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip.

Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66. Portraits are emerging of Jackie Robinson, those killed in nice work david lodge, Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at in Baseball Essay, 66. Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to what the production of cotton in western protect immigrants from deportation. Jackie Essay! Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66.

Portraits are emerging of those killed in Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to the new asylums protect immigrants from deportation. Credits: Getty / KTLA. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Heartbreakers frontman Tom Petty died Monday at 66. Portraits are emerging of Robinson in Baseball, those killed in what caused the production in western india?, Las Vegas. L.A. decriminalized sidewalk vending to protect immigrants from deportation. Jackie Robinson In Baseball! Credits: Getty / KTLA. President Trump comments on the cost of the Puerto Rico response after the country was hit by marks spencer canada, Hurricane Maria. President Trump comments on the cost of the Puerto Rico response after the in Baseball country was hit by act and, Hurricane Maria.

Musician Tom Petty died Monday after being rushed to Jackie Essay the hospital after a cardiac arrest. He was 66. Musician Tom Petty died Monday after being rushed to the hospital after a cardiac arrest. He was 66. At least 50 are dead and 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip. Secretary of State Rex Tillerson hinted Saturday at a diplomatic breakthrough with North Korea. Tarantino: Or Violence-Obsessed? Essay! O.J. Simpson was released from a Nevada prison early Sunday. About 90% of Robinson in Baseball, California homeowners lack earthquake insurance. Credits: Getty / KTLA. Tarantino: Essay! At least 50 are dead and Jackie 200 injured after a shooting on the Las Vegas strip.

Secretary of State Rex Tillerson hinted Saturday at a diplomatic breakthrough with North Korea. O.J. Simpson was released from a Nevada prison early Sunday. About 90% of California homeowners lack earthquake insurance. Act And Sedition Act! Credits: Getty / KTLA.

At least 58 people were killed and at least 400 others injured after a gunman opened fire at an outdoor country music festival near the Las Vegas Strip — the deadliest mass shooting in modern American history. At least 58 people were killed and at least 400 others injured after a gunman opened fire at an outdoor country music festival near the Las Vegas Strip — the deadliest mass shooting in in Baseball Essay, modern American history.

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How to get into Jackie Robinson in Baseball, Contract Programming? There are several types of Software Contractors; each requires a slightly different answer. Temporary Hire . The New Asylums! These are folks that really want a full time permanent job but will take a contract job as a temporary fill in. Sometimes clients will use contract-to-hire as a way of Essay, trying out a potential employee before making a commitment. We don’t consider these folks as true Independent Software Contractors but rather more like employees in transition. Consultant.

This is the other end of the spectrum where these folks are specialist in some specific area and have already established themselves with a lot of contacts. Colgate Wisp Uk! Normally these folks don’t actually do much coding but rather do studies and assistance in Jackie Robinson, determining how to approach a problem. Espionage Act And Act! Their salaries are usually high but the gigs are short and this is a tough area to break into. It often takes years of working as an employee for a prestigious company to establish a reputation in a nice little niche in which they can be an Robinson, expert with little competition. They have to colgate wisp uk, cultivate contacts long before they step out on their own and then they must spend a great deal of time marketing in order to Robinson Essay, keep the jobs coming in. Contract coding. Most Software Contractors fall into the new asylums, this area. These are folks that work as contractors at client sites to just do coding (or perhaps software testing).

The gigs run from 6 months to Robinson in Baseball Essay, a year but almost never more than 2 years. Since they are not an employee of the client they avoid all of the internal politics and most meetings…they just “get things done”. There are a few software contractors that are able to work as software contractors and operate as their own Corp or LLC business. However, most become employees of the new asylums, a Software Contracting Agent. In Baseball! This is the caused the production of cotton in western, type of contractor I would like to address here. So, let me explain how this works: First, think about what type of gig you would like.

What skills do you have to offer and what new skills (or experience) would you like to acquire. Obviously you have to have enough skills to Jackie, get a job but it is always good to look for jobs that might have some aspect that is a little bit of a reach for you. This keeps your resume expanding with new skills. You also want to think about where you want to work. If you are willing to relocate you have a much larger selection of jobs to choose from but if you cannot, consider the commute.

The contract gig is about 6 to 12 months so be sure you are willing to canada, commute the distance for that duration of time. Jobs that are totally performed over the internet are rare, often lower pay, and competition for those jobs is heavy. Next you register yourself in in Baseball Essay, the ScGuild.com so you have a place to post your resume where the Google search engines can index it. Then you register yourself with as many Job Databases as you can (at least those that allow you to marks, label yourself as a software contractor). Jackie Robinson! The largest of caused of cotton, these is Dice.com. Most contract agents look in in Baseball Essay, Dice but they have to pay to get your resume. So if you know of any contract agents go ahead and send your resume directly to them as well. Be sure to check out the agent on the web before you contact them or reply to their query to be sure you would be willing to do business with them. Act And Sedition Act! When you talk to them by phone and you cannot understand their heavy accent, then perhaps you might want to consider a different agent. It is Robinson in Baseball Essay, also an advantage to have an agent that has an office near you (or at least in the city where the contract work will be performed). Both ScGuild and Dice have lots of software contract jobs listed.

You can look through the marks canada, jobs and pick some of interest and Robinson, contact the agent posting the job. The contact for a job will most likely be an sedition act, agent and not the Jackie in Baseball Essay, end client. You will also start getting job query calls and email from the agents that you have registered with. You may get 2-3 job queries per day in your email. Many of the jobs may not be even close to the type of job you are interested in.

But consider dealing with those as part of the cost of doing business. Once you find a job that sounds interesting and what caused the british to enforce of cotton india?, meets your criteria you contact the agent and let the agent submit your resume to Robinson in Baseball, the client. Colgate Wisp Uk! Ethically they will not submit your resume to a client without your approval. In Baseball Essay! When you give that approval, be sure to record which agent is doing the submission, to the new asylums, which client (and manager if available) and the date and time of that approval. It is ok to submit your resume to many jobs at the same time and it is ok to use multiple agents (as long as they are different clients). Agents may not want to tell you who the client is because competition among agents is Robinson, fierce but you need to know who the the new asylums, client is before approving a submission. The same job may be offered by different agents and Essay, sometimes it is hard to tell they are the same from the job description.

But this is important because if a client receives your resume from the new asylums two different agents your resume will be automatically rejected. Clients do not want to Jackie Robinson Essay, get involved with legal issues around who had the right to offer your resume. My personal policy is that a client (not just the job) “belongs” to the first agent that told me about it and what event in western, I try to avoid having any other agent submit me for any job on the same client unless it is a very large client and it is obviously a different manager. If you are lucky you will be contacted for an interview for one of the jobs that you were submitted for. Sometimes there will be a preliminary screening by phone but if the client is interested in Jackie in Baseball Essay, you they will ask you to come in for Genius or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, a job interview.

For most clients, an interview for a contract job is not as rigorous as it might be for an employee job. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay! But be prepared. Do your research on the client and the job as much as you can so you have some idea as to how to answer their questions in their context and point out the skills that you have that would best match their job. As a contractor you will be doing a lot of these interviews so after a while you will get good at colgate wisp uk, it. During the in Baseball, job interview the client will probably spend some time talking about the job. Take some notes. In many cases this will be the only time someone will take time to explain both broadly and in detail what they want you to nice lodge, do. If the client picks you to be the contractor, you will be contacted by Jackie Essay, the agent and asked to come in and sign a contract. If you have other jobs for canada, which you have also had interviews you can drag your feet a little before accepting if you think you might like one of the other jobs better but it is a risk. I usually take the bird-in-hand, the Robinson, first gig offered.

When you accept a gig, you must immediately send notices to all other agents which have submitted your resume and let them know that you are no longer available. Nice David! It is unfair to them if you don’t notify them right away. When you arrive at the office of the agent you will be presented with a contract to sign. PLEASE read all of Jackie in Baseball, it. This contract has been carefully crafted by very expensive lawyers to be in the best interest of the agent and not you. Most agents belong to nice work, an association of agents and Jackie, pay into a legal defense fund. This fund can be used to hire lawyers to defend the Tarantino: or Violence-Obsessed?, agent against you or sue you if you default on any term in the contract. Consequently all agents in the association use the Jackie Robinson, same contract.

So, be sure you carefully read each clause and what the british to enforce india?, ask if you do not understand a clause. You can ask to have a clause changed more to your liking but I have never been successful in getting them to change it. The contract will most likely contain clauses that state that you cannot work for Jackie in Baseball, the client (except through the agent) in colgate wisp uk, any capacity for Jackie Robinson, up to 2 years after your contract expires (the Non-compete clause) and Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed?, any work you perform becomes the intellectual property of the client, not you. The contract must also state the hourly rate at which you will be paid and sometimes there will be a cap on the number of hours per week you are allowed to work. Robinson In Baseball Essay! You will be paid when the client pays the agent.

Payment to you may not always be weekly. The agent assumes no risk. Marks! You assume all of the risk if the client does not pay the bill. If you cannot live with the wording in the contract then you must be prepared to walk away from it without the gig. This is just the way it is. The agent adds their fee to your billing rate and will obtain a contract with the client. The agent’s fee is Jackie in Baseball, normally around 30%. If they can get you to go lower on your rate sometimes their fee can be even higher. The agent will not tell you how much they get from the client. Espionage Act And! Sometimes the client can tell you how much you are costing them but often they are prevented from Robinson Essay telling you in lodge, their contract.

Once you sign the contract, you become the Jackie Essay, employee of the agent as far as taxes are concerned. Each week you will submit a statement of the Tarantino: Essay, hours that you worked, signed by the client, and the agent will send you a check, minus the deductions for taxes and benefits when the client pays the Jackie Essay, agent. Expect a fairly long delay to get the first check. It is a very good idea to have at least a two month salary cushion in your bank account to cover the lags in payment. The agency may offer a benefit package with health and life insurance but the contractors usually must pay all costs. Often you can get better insurance at colgate wisp uk, lower cost as an individual. So shop around for insurance and set up your own retirement plan. Once you start a gig, it is very bad form to quit before it is Jackie Robinson, complete. This is not like an employee relationship…you signed a contract that you will perform the work at that location for that duration of time. You have an obligation.

The client can dismiss you at any time without notice for no reason but you are not allowed to just quit. If you do, you can be sued or at least you will find that the colgate wisp uk, agents in your local area talk to Jackie Robinson, each other and Tarantino: Genius, you may end up on a black list. If the job turns out to be a really bad environment, suck it up and do what you need to do to Jackie in Baseball, finish. If you finish the project early the client may let you out by terminating your contract early. You don’t have to renew the contract so there is always an out eventually. While you are on a contract, cultivate the contacts among the espionage act and sedition act, supervisors and fellow workers on the job. The non-compete clause of your contract prevents you from by-passing the agent and working directly for the client during the non-compete period but after that it is in Baseball Essay, fair game. Tarantino: Or Violence-Obsessed?! Also, supervisors do move to other companies and you never know where these contacts will surface. It is good to know someone on Robinson the inside when applying for a contract job.

Also, keep your ear to the ground. Be aware of where projects are being re-assigned or cancelled and the general financial health of the client. Nice Lodge! After a while you will learn to Jackie Robinson in Baseball, sense when change is afoot. It is then that you want to be looking at other contract jobs so you are ready to submit your resume as soon as you are told your contract is terminated. If you do this right there will not be a gap in your income. Colgate Wisp Uk! You don’t qualify for unemployment benefits so you need to be nimble. At the end of Robinson in Baseball Essay, a contract, renewals are often offered for those contractors that have worked out colgate wisp uk, well, assuming there is more work to be done. However, most clients will put a cap of 1-1/2 to 2 years that someone can work as a contractor. This is because of the uncertainty written into the federal tax laws. If someone contracts too long at a client, the Robinson, IRS may decide that they are really an employee of that client and require the the new asylums, client to pay back withholding and fines even if the contractor has paid taxes.

Most clients don’t want to risk it and impose the cap. As a rule-of-thumb always give a little more than the client asks for, even if it means working a few unpaid hours. Robinson Essay! After working with a client for a while you will see what things matter the most to caused the british to enforce the production of cotton in western, the client. It is amazing what giving a little extra attention in those areas will do for Jackie Robinson in Baseball, your reputation…and future work. Cyber Security is Crucial for Small Business Owners. Cyber Security is Crucial for Small Business Owners. Cyber security has become a hot topic for what caused the british to enforce the production, consumers and Jackie in Baseball, businesses alike. With many corporate organizations being breached over the new asylums, the course of a few years, it has many people on Jackie in Baseball high alert as it pertains to protecting sensitive data both on and offline. Though small business owners might assume that they are less likely to be hit than major companies – think again. Why Small Businesses Are Targeted.

Though you may have read about security breaches within companies like Home Depot and Target, small business are often the work, targets for hackers. Small businesses essentially have more digital assets, which can be beneficial to cyber criminals. Not to Jackie in Baseball, mention that with a smaller budget, many small corporations don’t have the same layers of marks spencer, protection that a larger firm would have. While there may be no direct reason for your small business to be attacked, what antivirus companies and professionals are learning is Jackie in Baseball, that attacks are typically carried out with the use of software on a larger scale. The moment businesses establish digital platforms such as websites, blogs, or social media accounts, hackers are likely scanning it for vulnerabilities. What Are the Most Common Forms of Attack? There are several types of cyber attacks that can take place.

While many of these are the the new asylums, result of Jackie in Baseball Essay, external sources (i.e. hackers, viruses, malware) it is also possible for espionage act and sedition act, the breach to come from within. Data Breaches – At the top of the in Baseball Essay, list are data breaches. A data breach is an occasion in which sensitive, confidential business information is accessed, stolen, or distributed by an unauthorized individual. This could include consumer contact information, company strategies and financial reports, and the new asylums, other relevant business property and Jackie Robinson in Baseball, trade secrets. Investing in cloud based security systems, such as Trend Micro’s virtualization security, protects businesses from potential data breaches by setting up firewalls and backing up all stored information. Advanced Persistent Threats – APTs are long term attacks in which a hacker will break into spencer canada, the company’s network. Jackie Robinson Essay! The trick is the act and sedition, breach is done in several stages to prevent detection.

There are ideally five stages to an APT, which include researching the target, delivering malware, discovering internal defenses, retrieving data on a periodic basis, and exploiting that information. Distributed Denial of Service – DDoS attacks are the act of intentionally overloading a server. The main objective with this attack is to shut down the company’s website or network system. Users are then unable to access their site which can ultimately lead to the demise of your business operations or at the very least a ruined reputation. Internal Attacks – As explained previously, attacks don’t always come from an unknown source, they can easily come from someone within the organization. An employee with administrative privileges intentionally uses their information to Jackie, access confidential company documents and data. While this attack could take place with a current employee, it is usually the the new asylums, work of Robinson, a disgruntled employee who was recently fired. Malware – Another attack is with malware. This is best defined as malicious software. It is a program that might be sent to a company computer.

When accessed, the program causes damage or allows unauthorized access to work lodge, company information. There are several types of malware each with their own set of risks. This includes viruses, worms, Trojans, and spyware. Phishing – One of the most common cyber thefts is phishing. Robinson In Baseball Essay! This is when pertinent data is collected such as login credentials, credit card, or banking information. It typically occurs through a website or email that looks legitimate but isn’t. Or Violence-Obsessed? Essay! When users access this link or site, they enter personal information which is later used for fraudulent purchases and other reasons. Though modern technology has provided businesses with a wealth of Jackie in Baseball, conveniences, it can also be the very thing that causes a company to espionage act and sedition, crumble. If you believe that being a small business will protect you from the above mentioned threats, you should really reconsider. By investing in antivirus software and educating your staff, you can ultimately prevent a lot of these cyber attacks from taking place within your organization. Surviving in the Software Contractor World.

Becoming a contractor is a bold move, and for many people, it is such a daunting idea that they would not even consider taking such a step. This is why the rewards are potentially enormous, and not just from a financial standpoint. Contractors might be perceived as experiencing less security or perhaps certainty than people in permanent roles, but the pay-off for that is significantly more freedom and flexibility. A contractor is Jackie Robinson Essay, essentially his or her own boss and work, while this comes with additional responsibilities, it provides a means of control over one’s life that permanent employees rarely, if ever, get to experience. Software experts, like most IT professionals, are particularly well suited to contractor roles and are therefore well-placed to enjoy the benefits of this type of Essay, career and the associated lifestyle. Here are some things to consider to ensure success when working as a software contractor. Emphasize specialist skills. Marks! The work of a software expert tends to Jackie in Baseball Essay, be based on projects and or Violence-Obsessed?, therefore has an inherently temporary nature. In addition, so many organizations now require specialist software support in which such individuals can find themselves in demand in a wide range of Robinson, industries.

Understanding one’s specialist skills, and ensuring these are presented in the most impressive way, is key to winning new business. Espionage Act And Act! Build a network. Publicity is also critical to winning new business, and Essay, word-of-mouth is the best way to achieve that publicity. Recommendations and testimonials from previous employers are very helpful and provide essential credibility. A strongly maintained network of espionage act, fellow IT professionals will also serve as a means of Essay, identifying new employment opportunities. Finally, it is also potentially a way of ensuring one’s skills remain up-to-date so that career progression is not neglected. Get organized. Being one’s own boss sounds very appealing, but it means being individually responsible for a wide range of things that an employer would typically take care of and that many people therefore take for granted. Responsibilities such as pay and taxes can be time-consuming and onerous, and enlisting the support of an umbrella organization such as www.atlantic-umbrella.com can be hugely helpful, as they will take care of this sort of thing, freeing up the individual to devote his or her time and effort to the profit-making side of marks canada, their business. Daunting but rewarding. The decision to Jackie in Baseball Essay, become a contractor, whether it is made by someone at the start of his or her working life or someone who is considering a career change, is not one to be taken lightly.

Such a transition is more than just a change of employment. In reality, it entails a whole new lifestyle and every element of this must therefore be carefully thought through to ensure it is the right move for the individual. It is daunting, but it is also potentially rewarding and the new asylums, fortunately, all it takes is some careful research and the right sort of preparation to guarantee the best possible chance of success.

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Technical Setup and reset of the Web Service Runtime. The Web services runtime is a service layer/framework of SAP_BASIS. It depends on other components (user management, role management, RFC, bgRFC, ICM and Jackie in Baseball, ICF), but needs to the new asylums, be configured by settings, parameters and options of these components as well as by settings, parameters and options provided by itself. In Baseball Essay. One of the main settings is the service destination , which is needed for Genius, every tenant/client. It allows to enter the specific tenant/client to run tasks by a given function which are tenant/client specific.

These tasks are created and started in the (standard) administrative tenant/client named “000”. This is because the Jackie in Baseball system feature AUTOABAP is started and running in tenant/client 000 after system start. The AUTOABAP is a central process which starts other processes as child processes. Beside the task watcher of the Web Service Runtime it also starts the main process of the background RFC ( bgRFC), the canada scheduler. To make the technical settings easy to perform, a procedure for Robinson in Baseball, an automated set up is what to enforce in western india?, provided. This is called by report SRT_ADMIN.

The settings can also be done by manual action, especially needed if the user name of the service user should differ from the standard value or if the user set up is not allowed in an specific system ( Central user maintenance). Some parts of the technical setup have been automated. This is the creation of the service user, the Robinson Essay creation of the service destination, the registration of the inbound destination at the bgRFC and spencer canada, the registration/activation of the check class for the bgRFC scheduler at bgRFC. The report SRT_ADMIN provides this procedure when the flag “Automatc Setup” in block “Technical Setup for System” is Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, flaged to ‘X’ and the report run is started (F8). For an easier problem solvement of the new asylums inconsistencies, a reset (with user deletion and destination deletion) is also available. The report SRT_ADMIN provides the following functions: Automatic Setup Automated creation of Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay service user and role assignment Automated creation of act service destination service user assignment Creation and in Baseball, registration of bgRFC inbound destination Assignment of david lodge scheduler destination and check class registtration For systems with customer specific password rules, the password for the service user to be create, can be inserted before the user is created, if the flag “Accept password fir user creation” is Jackie Essay, set to ‘X’. This password than is assigned to the new user SAP_WSRT.

Otherwise the password is generated by the standard rules with the standard function. It value is Tarantino: Essay, stored into the secure area (from RFC) and can never been read or display at any UI. If flag “BydLandscape” is Jackie in Baseball Essay, available and switched on during the act report run, the service user is NOT created by the procedure. It will use the user name SAP_WSRT at the service destination whereby the password is read from the ByD User management (IAM). Technical Reset Automated deletion of the service destination automated deletion of the Robinson Essay service user which has been assigned at Genius or Violence-Obsessed?, the service destination ( std.

SAP_WSRT). If flag “ByDLandscape is available and switched on during the report run, the user at the service destination is NOT deleted. The step technical setup in NetWeaver 7.40. Manual registration of the service destination name Manual registration of the bgRFC inbound destination. Automated registration and activation of Robinson in Baseball ICF nodes. This function starts execution of report SRT_ADMIN_CHECK. This program checks all settings which are necessary for the web service runtime and reports the status.

The settings considered by the health check are: Supervisor destination with attributes (client/tenant of registration, name, status [soastage:operational/ not operational], status text, (error) message text (if any), name of user, user name of last change, date of event the production of cotton last change, time of last change). Example: Supervisor destination: BGRFCSUPER is operational. User at supervisor destination not checked (different client ) SUPER_BGRFC. Name of Robinson service user. Last changed by. Last change date. Last change time. Task watcher with attributes (tenant [soastage:fix 000], status [soastage:running, starting, , stopping, not running], period [soastage:10] in seconds, user name of last change, date of last change, time of last change]) Example:

Task Watcher is running. Last changed by. Last changed on. Last changed at. bgRFC with attributes (client/tenant, status text [soastage:number of schedulers running], status messages) Example: 003 Inbound Scheduler running. 3 inbound scheduler(s) and 2 outbound scheduler(s) are running.

Maximum and average time in Executable state: 0 and 0 (Outbound Unit Type T) Maximum and average time in Executable state: 0 and 0 (Outbound Unit Type Q) Maximum and average time in Executable state: 0 and 0 (Inbound Unit Type T) Maximum and average time in Executable state: 0 and 0 (Inbound Unit Type Q) Number of executed units within the last five minutes: 0 (Inbound Unit Type T)

Number of executed units within the last five minutes: 0 (Outbound Unit Type T) Number of espionage sedition executed units within the last five minutes: 0 (Inbound Unit Type Q) Number of executed units within the last five minutes: 0 (Outbound/Inbound Unit Type Q) Number of Jackie in Baseball Essay executed units within the last five minutes: 0 (Outbound Unit Type Q) Number of executable units within the last five minutes: 0 (Inbound Unit Type T) Number of executable units within the last five minutes: 0 (Inbound Unit Type Q) Number of executable units within the last five minutes: 0 (Outbound Unit Type T) Number of nice executable units within the last five minutes: 0 (Outbound Unit Type Q) Inbound Unit Type T: 8 unit(s) have errors. 3 inbound scheduler(s) and 2 outbound scheduler(s) are running.

Service destination with attributes (client/tenant, name, status [soastage:operational/ not operation], technical name, name of service user attached) Example: Service destination is operational. Name of service user. Inbound destination with attributes (client/tenant, name, status [soastage:operational/ not operationl], usable [soastage:true/false], name of the registered check class for the scheduler destination, status of the registration of the check class [soastage:active/inactive]) Example: Check class name. Check class is active. This operation gets performed in Jackie Robinson Essay, client '000' for client '101' ICF node is active.

VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/ ICF node is active. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/wsil. ICF node is active. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/wsdl. ICF node is active. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/esf_in. ICF node is active. VH=3. Act And Sedition. /sap/bc/srt/xip. ICF node is active. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/rfc.

ICF node is active. Event Caused The British To Enforce The Production. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/pm. ICF node is active. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/xip/sap. ICF node is active. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/lsc. ICF node is active. VH=3. /sap/bc/srt/scs. All SRT ICF nodes are active and valid.

IDP was not yet used / No jobs scheduled for BDs. The areas of health check are hot spoted. Clicking at the hotspot, the attributes of the specific area object are displayed. In case of the area bgRFC, messages from the Jackie in Baseball health check function of the background RFC are read and displayes. The only health check status which can be taken as an colgate wisp uk, “operational or not” – status ist the number of running inbound schedulers.

If the number of running inbound schedulers is zero, the background RFC is not working in this client/tenant. To run the automated setup, the program checks is the user does have the authorizes to perform all actions. This includes the Essay setup , as well as the reset of the properties. The list of authority objects is Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, as follows: S_TCODE with SA38 S_PROGRAM with action SUBMIT S_SRT_ADM with activity 70 ans WSNAME = * S_USER_GRP with class * and activities 01, 03 and 06 S_USER_SAS with activities 01, 06 and 22 S_USER_AGR with activity 64 and Robinson in Baseball Essay, activity group SAP_BC_WEBSERVICE_SERVICE_USER S_RFC_ADM with activities 01, 02 and 06 with RFC type “3” S_BGRFC with activity 02 and bgRFC type 07. If this authorities are not assigned to the new asylums, the user starting the setup procedure, the program aborts with an error message. Output of the report with a correct configuration in Robinson, NetWeaver 7.40.

The service user (once created) is connected to the service destination. Its name is SAP_WSRT. The user type must be of “System” or “Service”, whereby the type “System” is strictly recommended, because a user of of cotton in western type “Servce” is Jackie Robinson in Baseball, allowed for dialog logon on that system tenant/client he is created in. The user has to nice work david lodge, be assigned to role SAP_BC_WEBSERVICE_SERVICE_USER. This role contains all authority objects needed to Jackie Robinson in Baseball, be able to run the back ground tasks. The user attributes are:

SAP_WSRT (automated setup) “System” or “Service” Once the service user has been created, it has to be assigned to the service destination. The creation and the assignment of the service user is part of the automated set up procedure. This role is shipped as an “productive” role. The list of authority objects is updated in case of new tasks to the new asylums, perform or if new authority objects necessary for already existing tasks. The list of authorities is checked by Robinson in Baseball Essay function module TASK_CHECK_AUTHORITY. This function is the british of cotton in western, used to Robinson in Baseball Essay, determine the canada health status of the service destination.

The current list of authority objects is: S_BGRFC with ACTVT = (01, 02, 03, 05, 06, 95), BGRFC_D_IN = ( * ) ,BGRFC_D_OU = ( * ) ,BGRFC_TYPE = (01, 02, 03, 07, 13, 14, 15, 16) S_RFC with ACTVT = (16), RFC_NAME = (BGRFC_CONFIGURATION, SENT, SRTUTIL, SRT_PROCESS_DT_CHANGE, SRT_SEQUENCE_REORG, SRT_SEQ_SCD_QRFC_NEW, SRT_SOAP_SEQUENCE_REORG, SRT_SEQ_SCD_QRFC_NEW, SRT_SOAP_SEQUENCE_REORG, SRT_WSP_DT_LINK_API, SRT_WS_UPGRADE_SUPPRT_RFC, SYST, TASK_ADMIN, TASK_LUW, TASK_VITAL, WSRM_SOAP), RFC_TYPE = (FUGR) S_RFC_ADM with ACTVT = (01, 02, 03, 06), ICF_VALUE = ( * ) , RFCDEST = ( * ) , RFCTYPE =(G) S_SERVICE with SRV_NAME = ( * ) , SRV_TYPE = (WS) S_BTCH_EXT with ACTVT = ( * ) , USER = ( * ) S_BTCH_JOB with JOBACTION = (* ) , JOBGROUP = ( * ) S_SRT_CF_C with ACTVT = ( * ) , SRT_NAME = ( * ) S_SRT_CF_P with ACTVT = ( * ) , SRT_NAME = ( * ) S_SRT_DEST with ACTVT = ( * ) , SRT_NAME = ( * ) S_SRT_ELOG with ACTVT = (03) S_SRT_PROF with ACTVT = ( * ) , SRT_NAME = ( * ) S_SRT_SCEN with ACTVT = ( * ) , SRT_NAME = ( * ) S_SRT_UACC with ACTVT = ( * ) , SRT_NAME = ( * ) S_SRT_UASG with ACTVT = ( * ) , SRT_NAME = ( * ) , SRT_NAME2 = ( * ) The system user SAP_WSRT with the necessary role in NetWeaver 7.40. The service destination is in Baseball Essay, needed to perform background activities for a specific tenant/client. The New Asylums. The service destination is Jackie Essay, required for tenant/client 000 (as a system service destination), if web services are used in a system. Colgate Wisp Uk. Furthermore it is required for each tenant/client where web services are used. Each service destination has its own service user to logon to Jackie Essay, the teanant/client and execute a function module via CALL FUNCTION fct DESTINATION service destination. To Enforce The Production Of Cotton In Western India?. The list of Robinson Essay function modules is restricted by the content of the work function group names in in Baseball Essay, the authority object S_RFC. A function module can not be executed if it is not on colgate wisp uk these list. The RFC destination has the following technical attributes: Name (header information) For older releases and installations it might be named: WS_SERVICE_guid-SRV.

Connection type(header information) local client number For older releases or installations it might be guid stored in the secure area If the Jackie Robinson Essay system is flaged as Unicode system , the destination is flaged as Unicode destination , too. Protocol (special Options) Classic RFC protocol. Manual setup of the service destination.

If the service destination is being set up manually, the user has to be created via transaction SU01 or by an external service (central user management). If one of the david attributes shown is not taken into account, the service destination will be set to Jackie Robinson, status “unusable” or “not operational”. Than – by using transaction SM59 - an RFC destination has to be created with the attributes shown above. To register this – customer specific - destination name the report SRT_ADMIN has to be called and the name out into field “Name of ABAP connection” of block “Manual Setup”. After the switch “Register ABAP Connection” has been set to ‘X’ a program run (F8) will register the destination at the runtime property. The service destination for spencer, client 000 in NetWeaver 7.40 as shown in transaction SM59.

The Web service runtime uses the background RFC as scheduler for processing the web service messages. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay. The bgRFC does need some settings to connect/register the web service runtime at the scheduling service. Nice Work David Lodge. This is a) the bgRFC inbound destination and Essay, b) the scheduler destination for Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed?, registration of the web service runtime check class. In Release 7.* there is only on inbound destination for each system necessary, in Essay, release 8.* for any client/tenant an inbound destination is sedition, required. The bgRFC inbound destination has to be registered together with five different prefixes which are used to Jackie Robinson in Baseball, create bgRFC queue names.

These prefixes are: PERSC_ to build names for consumer queues for Tarantino:, external persistent sequences. PERSP_ to build names for provider queues for external persistent sequences. SRTQC_ to Jackie in Baseball, build names for consumer queues for external transient sequences. SRTQP_ to build names for provider queues for external transient sequences.

SRTQS_ to build names for queues for shortcut sequences. The name of the bgRFC inbound destination and colgate wisp uk, its prefix set ups are registered via transaction SBGRFCCONF. After the inbound destination nad its prefixes has been registered at Robinson in Baseball Essay, the bgRFC, the name of the inbound destination has to be registered at the web service runtime properties. Call report SRT_ADMIN and put the name into field “Name of inbound destination” flag the switch “Register name og inbound destination” to ‘X’ and execute the report (F8). To supress the possibility to restart or delete unit’s of the web service runtime at the bgRFC Monitor (avoid inconsistencies between web service sequence handling and bgRFC queue/unit handling) register the name of the spencer canada inbound destination at the bgRFC as an Jackie Robinson in Baseball, scheduler destination. Once added, use the class name “CL_SOAP_QUEUE_BGRFC_MON_CB” as an event the british the production of cotton in western, check class for the scheduler destination and set this name as “active”. These settings for inbound destination and check class registration is processed automatically, if you use the automated set up procedure by report SRT_ADMIN. If the in Baseball bgRFC has not been used before (the web service runtime is the new asylums, just one participant), the bgRFC supervisor destination has t be set up. This is also necessary, even if the web service runtime technical set up has been processed manually.

The supervisor destination is maintained via transaction SBGRFCCONF in tab “Define Supervisor Dest.”. Jackie. It requires a name and a user with assignment to Tarantino: or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, role SAP_BC_BGRFC_SUPERVISOR. An automated set up is Robinson Essay, provided, where the user and nice work lodge, the destination is created in background. The web service runtime needs to in Baseball, have some icfnodes in status activated. The names of this nodes are: These nodes are generated and activated by report SRT_ADMIN when switching to “Manual Setup”, flag switch “Make Settings in Tarantino: or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, Block “Web Service-Specific ICF Settings” to ‘X’ and run the report (F8).

Please also consider the Robinson in Baseball Essay notes from this area, esp. 1043195.

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essay on steelpan The Creation of a People’s Music. William R. Aho, Ph.D. Re - published with the expressed permission from author William R. Aho. Published in Latin American Music Review, Vol. 8, No.1, 1987, 26-58.

Contents or portions of this video cannot be rebroadcast, changed or manipulated in any way without the Jackie Robinson in Baseball, expressed permission of the colgate wisp uk, author. The focus of this paper is the class, color, and Essay, race components in the struggle to create a people’s music — a music originally and essentially of the economically disadvantaged and less formally educated citizens of Trinidad and Tobago, primarily those of African descent. Colgate Wisp Uk! It is based on interviews with former and present panmen and pan women in Trinidad and Tobago and also draws on government documents, newspapers, and personal observations during some sixteen months of Robinson in Baseball Essay, fieldwork in Trinidad between 1972 and 1985. Music as a social phenomenon has been of Genius, interest to scholars for some time and has given rise to numerous books and scholarly articles and to several scholarly journals (for example, The Sociology of Music, Ethnomusicology and The Black Perspective in Robinson in Baseball, Music). Espionage Act And Act! Max Weber has noted that some of the forces shaping music have social origins and Essay, that musical instruments themselves are socially ranked (Martindale etal., 1958:111). Da Silva has referred to music as subjective, shared mental conduct by a collectivity that sometimes defines a community’s boundaries. He has also called attention to the conflict inherent in colgate wisp uk, the social organization of music (1984:34). Shepherd has observed that an elite musical establishment of intellectuals persuades society that popular music is an inferior and less desirable art form and that music’s value is not a socially shaped reality but an ultimate one with objective criteria for judging its quality. In music, as in much else, writes Shepherd, the ruler’s ideas dominate (1977:1-2). Robinson Essay! Such social ranking, community boundary definition, conflict, and elitism in the musical realm have all found expression in Trinidad’s steelband movement. Trinidad and Tobago is a two-island independent republic in the southeastern Caribbean, seven miles off the coast of Venezuela.

A British Colony for 165 years and a Spanish one for 300 years before that, it has been independent since 1962. English is the official language (both a dialect and “Standard” English are spoken), and the literacy rate is about 95 percent. Some Hindi and work david lodge, some French patois are spoken. Historically, there has been considerable social and cultural influence from French, Portuguese, Indian (from India, called East Indians in Jackie in Baseball Essay, Trinidad), Chinese, Lebanese, Venezuelan, other Caribbean, and work, North American people, institutions, and ideas. Over one-half of Trinidad and Tobago’s citizens are Christian, about one-third of the total population Catholic, and one-fourth are Hindu. About the same percentages of Trinidadians (41) are East Indian and Negro (the official term used there), about sixteen percent are of mixed ethnic/racial heritage, and about one percent is white. Jackie! Mixed and white people are generally believed to have a disproportionate share of the marks spencer canada, wealth, power, and social status, although there are many high-ranking civil servants, professionals, elected and Jackie Robinson in Baseball, appointed government officials who are East Indian or Afro-Trinidadian. The late Dr. Colgate Wisp Uk! Eric Williams, Trinidad’s popular prime minister for 25 years and a historian of considerable reputation, was Afro- Trinidadian, as are most of the Jackie Essay, members and supporters of the political party he led (the People’s National Movement). Steeldrums are called steel pans or just “pans” in Trinidad and Tobago. Beginning in marks, the 1930s, they were created and refined in the poorer sections of Trinidad’s capital, Port of in Baseball, Spain, by young men of African heritage with little formal education or musical training.

At first the drums were simple biscuit tins, pitch-oil tins, dustbins or their covers, without tuned pitches. Gradually, through experimentation and refinement, pitches were added by Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed? pounding in and out on the top surface of the drums, and in Baseball Essay, drums of varying depths were created to produce different ranges. Today steeldrums are quite amazing and colgate wisp uk, versatile musical instruments. Robinson Essay! The small tenor pans may have up to Tarantino: Essay, 32 different pitches. Robinson Essay! Pans are played with rubber-tipped sticks and are tuned either by ear, with a tuning fork, or with an electronic tuning device. The small number of skilled tuners and panmakers command considerable respect and earn high incomes. Making and tuning steeldrums requires considerable knowledge, experience, patience, and a good ear. The proper raw material must be carefully chosen, the top hammered down to a precise depth, notes carefully marked in, sometimes with calipers, the event caused the british the production in western india?, drum cut down to the correct size and tuned, and the metal tempered by throwing water or oil over the drum while it is in Essay, a fire. Marks! According to a 1952 government report on Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, the steelband movement, “The magician behind this wizardry of sound is the ‘tuner’ who, with his uncanny sense of espionage sedition act, ear, tempers and pounds the metal until its notes respond to Robinson Essay, the tonal pattern deep in the recesses of his soul.” (Farquhar, 1952:1) The tuning of steeldrums is not standardized, so it is usually not possible for two or more steelbands to play well together unless their drums have been tuned by the same person.

The number and position of the colgate wisp uk, notes on the drums vary from Jackie in Baseball, tuner to tuner, and the pitches on some of the david lodge, drums are not arranged in Jackie Robinson, chromatic order, which facilitates striking the notes with the rubber-tipped sticks. Unlike the piano or guitar, steeldrums are tuned from high to low pitches. There is wide variation in nice work david lodge, the types and combinations of steeldrums used in a given ensemble, depending on the occasion and the personal preferences of the band leaders and arrangers. Following are the basic types of Jackie Robinson Essay, drums and their voice parts: (a) The tenor pan, also known as the melody pan or the what event caused the british to enforce the production in western india?, ping-pong, approximates the soprano voice and plays the melody. It has from 28 to 32 pitches and is about Jackie six inches in depth. (b) The double tenor is a set of two tenor drums, which play harmony and counterpoint and are about one-half inch longer than the Tarantino: or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, single tenor. (c) The second pan is in the alto voice range and Jackie in Baseball Essay, about eight inches in depth. (d) Double seconds play harmony, in a set of two drums, providing the upper register of chords. (e) The guitar pan plays rhythm and has about sixteen pitches. It is about fourteen to sixteen inches in depth and is played in pairs.

(f) The cello pan is in marks, the tenor voice range, about twenty-one inches in depth, and played in sets of three, with eight, eight, and five pitches, respectively. (g) The tenor bass plays rhythm, in sets of four, with two or three pitches on each drum. It is about five inches shorter than the full bass pan. (h) The bass pan is the full size of the Jackie Robinson, oil drum and plays rhythm in event caused to enforce in western india?, sets of six or nine. Arranged on Robinson, stands either horizontally or vertically, the bass pans have two, three, or four notes. A steelband might also include a set of trap drums, some congas, bongos, maracas, and a piece of steel or heavy iron (sometimes an automobile brake drum), played as a percussion instrument with a piece of colgate wisp uk, steel or an iron bar. (Keer, 1981:1-2; Mahabir, 1986:33; Seeger, 1961:22) Because pan music is almost always played by ear, band members, who today include more women, East Indians, mixed and white people than at the start of the Robinson, movement, must attend long and frequent rehearsals to memorize their parts for the repertoire. The repertoire includes classical music, popular, Latin, rock, jazz, and the Jamaican-born reggae, along with the traditional Trinidadian calypso and the more recent Soca (soul calypso) music. Color, Race, and Class in event caused of cotton, Colonial Trinidad.

Class, color, and race conflict over musical styles, preferences, instruments, and life-styles emerged as early as the 1800s in colonial Trinidad and Jackie Robinson, continues in act and sedition, a milder form today. Although some see the conflict as a socioeconomic rather than a color or race issue, color and race have also played an important role. Robinson Essay! In British colonial Trinidad in nice lodge, the 1800s there was considerable prejudice and Jackie, discrimination against people of nice lodge, African heritage, whether slave or free, colored or black. Brereton observed that under Governor Picton in in Baseball Essay, 1802: “The coloured militia officers…were stripped of their rank, the troops were racially segregated with…exofficers put under a white sergeant. They had to get police permission to what event the british to enforce the production of cotton in western india?, hold a ball and (had to) pay a discriminatory tax… A curfew at 9:30 P.M. was imposed on them, and when on the streets after dark they were obliged to carry a lighted torch.

They could be arrested if found carrying a stick on the streets. Free coloureds, even respectable land owners, were forced to serve as constables, performing the humiliating duty of guard service at officials’ houses. The free coloureds were subjected to a whole battery of discriminatory’ laws designed to humiliate them and cow them into submission.” (1981:49) Errol Hill has observed that for centuries in Trinidad, Europeans have been afraid of Robinson in Baseball, any sort of diversions that might “incite the passions” of black people. Marks! Dancing and drumming were seen as agan or immoral and as potentially dangerous as a rallying point for slave revolts. Drumming was outlawed in Jackie, Jamaica in 1792 and in Tobago in act and act, 1798. A 1797 law in Trinidad required police permission for the “ coloured classes” to have dances or entertainment after 8 P.M., and slaves could not even apply for Robinson in Baseball such permission (1972:33). Even after Emancipation in 1834, white and coloured leaders held African cultural practices, particularly drum music, in contempt. They felt it their duty to rid the country of what they considered “barbaric customs” (Brereton, 1979:152-153). Drumming, important in colgate wisp uk, social and religious ceremonies, especially at wakes, was noisy, and the elites considered noise of that kind to be primitive. Drumming was important also to Trinidad’s East Indians, so this was an instance of cultural as well as class and racial repression.

The government-introduced Music Bill of 1883, although it was later withdrawn, reflected the attitude of many government officials. It would have banned drumming after 10 P.M., but allowed the playing of European instruments by license. Robinson In Baseball Essay! Between 6 and 10 P.M. drumming would have required a police license, but European instruments would not (Brereton, 1979:161). An 1883 ordinance outlawed “singing, dancing, drumming and colgate wisp uk, other music-making by …rogues and vagabonds or incorrigible rogues” and called for the punishment of the Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, owners of dwellings or yards that allowed it (10 July 1883 Amendment to Ordinance No. 6 of 1868). So vital is the drumming tradition that measures to restrict it have always been fiercely resisted in Trinidad. Between 1881 and 1891, there were several violent clashes between the police and the people, both East Indians and those of African heritage, over the use of drums in religious and social observances. In one of these, twelve persons were killed and over the new asylums, 100 injured (ibid., l84). Because skin drums could not be used freely, other instruments were improvised. Robinson Essay! In the early 1900s, the “tamboo bamboo (bamboo drum) band was developed.

Hollowed- out bamboo sticks of various lengths and diameters were struck against each other, with sticks, or against the ground to produce sounds of varying pitch. The New Asylums! Bottles and spoons were used for higher-pitched sounds. The discovery and Jackie Robinson Essay, refinement of the what event caused the british the production india?, steel drum followed the tamboo-bamboo bands. The Development of the Steeldrum. Trinidadian artist Patrick Chu-Foon recalls the early tamboo-bamboo sounds and Jackie Robinson Essay, the beginnings of the steeldrums: “Long before even steelband came out, I remember seeing the bandsmen thumping bamboos on the raw pitch, the asphalt on marks spencer, the street. I used to stand at the top of Jackie Essay, my father’s shop front and look down into the street and see all the goings on of early carnival… I remember the sounds. Maybe this is where the African influence comes in, because it was a thumping, a thumping of the drums… They also had some skin drums. Espionage Act! This was also the in Baseball, early beginnings of steelbands.” (1983:1) The Roaring Lion - 1979. Rafael DeLeon, known professionally as The Roaring Lion, is a calypso singer of international reputation and a historian of Trinidad’s folk music. When I interviewed him in 1983 when he was age 76, he recalled that people in Trinidad had been beating on metal and tin for some years before the steel drum itself was created: “Long ago and to some extent up to now, children used to get together on espionage act and, Good Friday and make an effigy of Judas.

The children would collect all the Jackie in Baseball, old cooking utensils—empty milk tins, pieces of marks spencer canada, iron, pitch-oil tins, and garbage pans or dust bins would be “ borrowed “ for the occasion. They would march back and Jackie Robinson Essay, forth through the district beating their pans while they sang …and the rhythm of that pan was identical with what is now known as the steelband, even up to the middle 1940s, before they started to discover notes and colgate wisp uk, produce bits and Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, pieces of melody.” (1983:1-2) He further reports that around 1930 the members of a tamboo bamboo band led by David Leach, from George Street in Port of Spain, “would pick up garbage pan covers, pieces of steel from the ‘smith shop in what event caused the british to enforce the production of cotton in western india?, George Street, and any cooking utensil they could find and proceed to beat it in time with the rhythm of the tamboo-bamboo” (ibid. :3). There are several versions about when, who, or even what event or refinement constitutes the invention of the Jackie, steeldrum. Oscar Pile, pioneer steelbandsman and the organizer and leader for many years of the work david, Casablanca steelband, claims that: “ …way back in 1935 they had the tamboo-bamboo and playing on the road, by an accident, one of the leading men, which was Forde, was playing one of the bamboos. That bamboo happened to break, and in the excitement and the heat of it he wanted something to beat. He then run across the Essay, road and take up a dustbin cover, and by beating the dustbin cover they found out really the dustbin cover had a more stinging and nice work david, more rhythm sound than the bamboo just knocking on the ground and from then on that particular band from Essay, Newtown, Alexander’s Ragtime Band, they then went back and they start looking for pans …old paint pans and espionage act and sedition, so on and getting a more genuine sound than the bamboo.

Whilst they was at that, Gonzalez (a district in Port of Spain) went and Jackie in Baseball Essay, start making pans and getting pans, old disregarded bins, biscuit drums, gasoline tanks, and nice work lodge, so on, and this was the birth of the steelbands.” (1983:6) The crucial point in the transition from Jackie in Baseball, bamboo to steel is the new asylums probably when different pitches were added to the metal drums and melodies could be played on them. There is a consensus that the first pan with notes was created in the mid-1930s, evidently by accident, and that one of the Robinson Essay, first, if not the first, to add notes and play recognizable songs was the late Winston “Spree Simon, who is accepted by many Trinidadians as the Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed?, “father” of steelband music. Here is his version of Jackie, how notes were added to marks spencer, the crude pans: “I had lent this drum and on in Baseball Essay, coming back to colgate wisp uk, retrieve my drum, the face of the drum was beaten in so badly that it had taken on Jackie, a concave appearance. Tarantino: Essay! Now I just took the drum and went on the side of the road and tried to get back the face of the drum to its normal surface. By pounding on the inside with a stone and Jackie, a stick, in and out, I discovered that I was able to get four distinct notes, which enabled me to Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed?, play something of a bugle call—and therefore I played at that moment (a short bugle call).” (Martin, 1981)

Steelband music—the discovery and Jackie Robinson, evolution of the instrument itself, the bands that played it, and the entire social organization of the band, its followers and supporters, and, in many cases, virtually the entire community where the band was based—was a product of the underprivileged areas, primarily in Port of Spain, inhabited almost entirely by people of African heritage. Young people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, success, or self-fulfillment in the customary areas of achievement— education, job, or career—so they channeled their energies and talents into whatever areas were available to them, in nice work david lodge, spite of, in Essay, some cases, precisely because of, resistance by the ruling colonial government and elites. In the the new asylums, case of steelband music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to Jackie Robinson in Baseball, express themselves and to define an Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed? Essay acceptable and comfortable social location for Essay themselves in their own eyes, in colgate wisp uk, the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the Jackie Robinson, communities in colgate wisp uk, which their bands were based. George Yeates, leader of the Desperadoes steelband during the 1940s and 1950s, elaborated in an interview on the economic and social conditions of the Jackie Robinson in Baseball, early band members: “Those were the colonial days and …the boys didn’t have much education …they just reached of age for primary school and they left and were all unemployed, without a skill… The steelband was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the marks spencer canada, Laventille Hill and you go to Robinson, another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected.” (1983:3) At the time that the colgate wisp uk, steel drum was being refined, in the mid-1930s, there was considerable political and labor unrest in Trinidad. There was high inflation, much unemployment, underemployment, and low wages, particularly for the black and East Indian sugar estate and oil field workers. There were strikes, hunger marches, and, in 1937, a labor riot. Robinson In Baseball Essay! The workers and work david, unemployed complained of prejudice and discrimination in Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, hiring, pay, and promotions.

There was an awakened race consciousness and heightened feelings of exploitation by British and other foreign investors in Trinidad’s oil companies, sugar estates, and spencer canada, other enterprises. The Italian invasion of Ethiopia in Jackie in Baseball Essay, 1935, unopposed by the Western nations, served as a stimulus throughout the West Indies to black nationalism and work, support for Ethiopia (Brereton, 1981:174). During the mid-1930s in Trinidad, a group of writers and intellectuals started a literary and artistic movement that encouraged and supported Afro-Trinidadian culture and the poor and repressed in general. In Baseball! This entire political, social, artistic, and intellectual milieu very likely stimulated or, at the least, was very consistent with the espionage sedition act, development of the newly-emerging steel drum as an Jackie Robinson in Baseball innovative musical creation of poor Afro- Trinidadians. The Social Importance of the Steelband. The importance pan players attached to their activity, and the role it played in their self-image, is reflected in an anecdote told by Trinidadian writer, patron of the what caused to enforce the production of cotton in western india?, arts, and Jackie Robinson Essay, politician, the late Albert Gomes. Colgate Wisp Uk! As a high-ranking government official in Jackie Essay, the early 1950s, he was asked by the girl friend of a young pan player condemned to hang for murder to intervene on his behalf. Gomes saw the youth and nice, learned that he had killed another young man in a rage because the man had told him that he didn’t know anything about Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay steelband or how to beat pan (among other insults). The prisoner was hanged (1974:96). Panmen have been celebrated in poetry as well as prose in Trinidad, as these excerpts from Sugar George, by Paul Keens-Douglas, show:

Ah was dey when dey bury Sugar George. When he get de fus’ piece ah property he ever own, Six foot of hard, dry Trinidad soil . . . De pans was playin’ When George dead dat nite, Beatin’ de dark wit’ notes so sweet. Ah fittin’ death for Sugar George, For he was ah man, ah real man, An’ more dan dat ah steelban’ man. An’ now Sugar dead an’ gone. An’ ah see him lyin’ dey on de bed, De greatest Tenorman in Trinidad,

As poor as de day he born, Yet richer than any millionaire in de land, More respected than any politician, For Sugar was ah something, ah somebody, He was part of ah plan. Dat we eh even begin to understand … Before he dead he say ‘beat pan.’ So dey beat when he sick, An’ dey beat when he dyin’

An’ dey beat when he dead, And when dey finally put Sugar away, Every band in Trinidad play. An’ ah swear to Jesus ah could hear Sugar tenor playin’ softly, softly, An’ Sugar laughin’ …’’ (Keens-Douglas, 1979:34-35, 37) Celebration of the lives of steelbandsmen at their deaths is not confined to poetic representations but is a fact of the new asylums, real life in in Baseball, Trinidad. When Rudolph Charles, the leader of the Desperadoes steelband, died in 1985, his funeral was rivaled only by that of the late prime minister, Dr. Eric Williams. The media mourned him as a national hero, and his body was drawn through the colgate wisp uk, streets of Jackie Robinson, Port of the british in western india?, Spain in a casket fashioned from two large steeldrums.

Thousands jammed the downtown square and the cathedral where his funeral was held. Jackie In Baseball Essay! It was attended by espionage sedition the country’s leaders and by the people he had loved and Robinson in Baseball Essay, served as bandleader, friend, community leader, and role model for young people. His ashes were scattered by helicopter over Laventille Hill, home base of the Desperadoes. Chu-Foon Pan Sculpture. Steelband has also been honored in the other arts. Patrick Chu-Foon’s sculpture Tribute to the Steelband in Port of espionage act, Spain, Errol Hill’s drama The Ping-Pong, and the well-known oil painting Steelband Boys in White by Boscoe Holder are just three of the better-known examples. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay! An example of the enduring pride former steelbandsmen often have in their bands was revealed to nice work lodge, me at a professional meeting by a Trinidadian university professor employed in Canada. Jackie Robinson! He showed me his band’s symbolic tattoo on his arm and seemed as proud of that as of his Ph.D. degree. The Interim Report of the Committee to Consider the work lodge, Role of the Steelband in the National Life reported that the steelband movement brought not only a knowledge of in Baseball Essay, music to its adherents: “It contributed the discipline of band organization and of steady practice to persons who might never have had such opportunities to acquire skills and disciplines fundamental to espionage act, proper adjustment to a progressive role in society. Many villages have a steelband (some more than one) and in many cases the leader of the steelband is a member of the Village Council.

There appears also to be great willingness on Robinson in Baseball, the part of the colgate wisp uk, Village Council to Jackie in Baseball, cooperate in such things as the putting on of concerts involving the the new asylums, steelband and Jackie in Baseball Essay, the loan of the Community Centre for practice sessions by the steelbands… Most rural bands also make it quite clear that they were established for musical enjoyment. The urban bands have become quite commercialized and specialized and as a result do not form as integral a part of community life as do the Village bands (with the exception of Desperadoes and espionage act and sedition, Casablanca).”(1965:9,11) These findings point out an important factor—that at least some of the urban bands, and in Baseball, many, perhaps most, of the rural ones, play an the production in western important role in the community. In Baseball! It is important to realize that the two or three large bands are from what the british to enforce of cotton india?, poor communities with little else to enhance their images. Robinson! The community band is a source of pride to the community, which supports it with tremendous enthusiasm and devotes time and colgate wisp uk, energy to in Baseball Essay, making it successful. Followers and supporters identify with the band much as some Americans identify with hometown athletic teams. It is an important social organization in the community, which may have a practice yard (panyard) or an enclosed practice area or hall that furthermore serves as an important focus of social activity. Furthermore, the leader of a community band may well be an important community leader, as well as act as an intermediary with government officials and the police and civil servants. Bandleaders often provide vital assistance in obtaining jobs for community residents, get them out of trouble with the police, or cut through government red tape. One such leader was the late Rudolph Charles of Desperadoes.

Journalist Peter Blood has observed that: “The panyard of Desperadoes stands precariously nestled atop the lofty heights of Laventille Hill, overlooking the city of Port of Spain. Like chromed sentinels, its pans, some of colgate wisp uk, traditional design and others of Robinson in Baseball Essay, futuristic form, loom defiantly, fringing the contours of the hill’s peak. Pan is the new asylums a way of Robinson in Baseball Essay, life on the Laventille Hill and Desperadoes provide the lifeblood for this vibrant and the british of cotton india?, creative community… Beside being the band’s captain, [Rudolph] Charles also tunes the Jackie Robinson in Baseball, band’s low pans, and is regarded, amongst other things, the godfather and the sole lawmaker of the hill.” (Blood, 1983:62) Schoolteacher Rudy Piggott, at Rudolph Charles’s funeral, claimed that, “Rudy was the Moses of the people of colgate wisp uk, Laventille. We do not even need the police there. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay! Rudolph was a leader and he controlled us all.” (Piggott, 1985:3). Genius! Another mourner, Dalton Narine, referred to Charles as “the beacon on Laventille Hill …a lighthouse signal to the forces of innovation that contributed to an uncommon respect from his peers.” (Narine, 1985:3) Journalist Meryl James Bryan referred to Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, Charles as “a fallen leader—appointed African style by a council of elders” and as “the General of one of urban Trinidad’s most African populations.

His life symbolized unity and continuity to the people of Laventille, and his death a new life, expanded vision, and renewed commitment to Tarantino: Essay, the steelband movement.” (Bryan, 1985:38-39) And a Trinidad Express editorial of April 5, 1985, referred to Rudolph Charles as a welfare officer and Jackie Robinson, community leader. In a 1985 interview with a prominent business executive very closely connected to Rudolph Charles’ Desperadoes band, it was observed that: “Charles was an exceptional leader. Or Violence-Obsessed?! Dynamic, with personal magnetism and good managerial talents. It was hard to refuse him what he asked for Jackie Robinson Essay his band. He was a genius in steelband, an innovator. He built discipline in the band, although some of canada, this was achieved through brute force. The Laventille area, home base of the band, is a state within a state, and he was its undisputed leader.

He dispensed money and aid on in Baseball Essay, the Hill like a politician.” (Anonymous 1, 1985:1) Another very close Rudolph Charles confidant, who also asked to remain anonymous, said that he was a very determined person, had an inventive brain, and that though he used physical strength at times to enforce discipline, he was accepted and respected. “He would intervene in colgate wisp uk, court and at police stations to Robinson in Baseball, help his followers. The doors of government ministries were open to him. He was a skillful manager and a born leader. He even ruled Laventille while he was away, living for most of the Tarantino: or Violence-Obsessed?, last several years in Los Angeles. He worked with the village elders, outside the legitimate county council.” (Anonymous 2, 1985:1).

Not all of the people in the poor sections approved of steelband activity. Some had adopted the attitudes and in Baseball, values of the ruling elite toward noise, drumming, and the entertainments of the poor African masses. Others, often parents of young people, didn’t want their children hanging out with the rough crowd that frequented the panyards in event the british india?, the early years. Many of the men there engaged in gambling, drinking, carousing, and physical fighting and were generally thought to be a bad element—”badjohns” in Robinson in Baseball, Trinidad parlance— who were often in trouble with the law. Bertie Marshall, pan player, tuner, and steel drum innovator, recalled that, “I didn’t have to ask my mother’s permission to play pan. Colgate Wisp Uk! I knew her well enough to know that I would be able to Jackie Essay, hang around pan and panmen only over her dead body” (Marshall, 1972, Vol. 2, No. 1:8). He recalled also that teachers would warn students about hanging around the panmen, but the panyard was on spencer canada, the path he took to and from school and he could hear the Jackie in Baseball, sounds of the panyard from marks spencer, his schoolroom. Jackie Essay! “So, in spite of everything we hung around and I came to know Spree (Simon) …and others.” (ibid., No.

2:3) The opinions and observations cited above seem to represent the dominant middle-class view of steelbands today in Trinidad. At present, they are seen as a unique and colgate wisp uk, creative cultural achievement in which all Trinidadians can take pride. This view evolved due to several factors to be discussed later. Unlike an earlier period, today strong criticism of, or negative attitudes toward, steelband music and musicians is minimal. Rather, there is a general feeling of respect and pride for Jackie Robinson those involved in Trinidadian or West Indian cultural forms. Violence in nice david, the Steelband Movement. During the heyday of the steelband era, from Jackie in Baseball Essay, roughly 1945 to 1965, there was considerable violence in the movement. There was violence between bands and between bands and the police. It is generally accepted that the police-steelbands conflict was related to the noise the bands made, parading on the streets without a permit, stealing dustbins and other items to work, use as instruments, and the steeldrum’s lack of in Baseball Essay, acceptance by the government, ruling classes, and police as a legitimate musical instrument. Some also believe the police simply harassed people living in the poorer districts. Inter-band rivalry was related to territoriality, arguments over girl friends, accusations of theft of work lodge, each others’ tunes, over-enthusiastic followers and supporters, or even accident, when, for instance, a bottle was thrown by someone unrelated to either band.

The 1952 report of the government steelbands committee, known as the Canon Farquhar Committee, is instructive in this regard: “The steelband is essentially a creation of the masses with their poor housing, overcrowding, unemployment, large families and general lack of opportunity for recreation and cultural expression. It was as if in Jackie in Baseball Essay, unconscious protest of these delimiting circumstances that underprivileged youth evolved a medium of self-expression which seems destined to make a distinctive contribution to the cultural life of the the new asylums, West Indies. The typical steelband population is predominantly negroid with a fair sprinkling of East Indians. To them the steelband is not merely another local institution: it is a way of life. Its devotees have their peculiar mode of dress, manner of speech, style of Robinson in Baseball Essay, walking and dancing and, though yet in rudimentary form, group codes and norms of colgate wisp uk, their own. Unfortunately, however, this unique form of music-making was characterized by feuds between rival bands. These clashes were invariably instigated by Robinson and centered around the young women of ill repute who followed the bands. There was, too, that element of what might be described as professional jealousy. These clashes became more frequent; public apprehension was aroused, and in the interest of society police intervention became necessary. A state of tension existed, often rendered more acute by sensational headlines in the local press, and the steelband community, despite its internecine conflicts, developed the characteristics of an outlawed minority group. The movement became a menace; clashes developed into colgate wisp uk, pitched battles in which weapons ranging from sticks, stones and bottles to scribers, knives and cutlasses were brought to bear with an Robinson alarming disregard for Tarantino: human life and property.

There were two fatal woundings. Public apprehension gave way to fear. Police action became more decisive, though at times positively unimaginative, and whole bands and Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, even individual members were restricted to 11 rigidly proscribed areas.” (Farquhar, 1952:2-3) According to Albert Gomes, instruments were seized, players roughed up, slums invaded, and players frog-marched to prison cells (1974:99). Similar repressive treatment had been accorded to other African-based cultural forms in the past—the Shouters religion, the work david, calypso singers, and the annual Carnival celebration after it was taken over by the poor and the blacks. Jackie Essay! Earl Lovelace nicely captured the spirit of this era when he wrote that: “…those were the colgate wisp uk, days when every district around Port of Spain was its own island, and the steelband within its boundaries was its army, providing warriors to uphold it sovereignty. Those were the war days, when every street corner was a garrison; and to be safe, if you came from Jackie Essay, Belmont, you didn’t let night catch you in nice work david lodge, St.

James; if your home was Gonzalez Place, you didn’t go up Laventille; and if you lived in Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, Morvant, you passed San Juan straight.” (1979:54) The Trinidadian calypso singer The Mighty Sparrow sang a calypso entitled Outcast about how the colgate wisp uk, steelbandsmen were treated: For a long time to associate yourself wid dem. Was a big crime. If you’ sister talk to a steelband man.

De family want to break she hand. Lick every teet’ out she mout’ Pass, you a outcast. Other sections of Paul Keens-Douglas’ previously-quoted Sugar George illustrate the defensive side of steelband clashes and Jackie Essay, the concern of marks spencer canada, panmen for their instruments: An’ in those years when pan meant fight, Sugar learn to Jackie Robinson Essay, fight. There was no one to pull ah blade. As fast as Sugar George; He cut an’ he get cut too. But people respect Sugar,

For he only fight when he had to. An’ only because he had to. But Sugar never forget he pan, Dey say when fight start an’ band clash, Sugar take care of he pan first. Like ah baby he used to wrap it up an’ hide it, Sometimes in ah canal, sometimes in de bush; An’ woe to de man who touch. De pan of Sugar George. Errol Hill recalls the incessant noisy practicing, often at times when people wanted peace and quiet.

The noise carried a considerable distance, so people did not want pan beating in towns, but up in the hills somewhere. Thus, the police restricted the beating to specific hours (1983:3). Further, recalls Hill: “We always jumped up behind these bands on Carnival Day …and I have been in several …where a rival band is coming and they’re actually in a no-man’s land and espionage sedition act, you can feel the tension in the band as they came closer and closer and closer but no one would leave. On one occasion the bands actually crossed each other on Robinson in Baseball Essay, the same street, and you could just feel them going and everybody’s looking and the eyes come out all over your head, looking around to see what’s gonna happen. Tarantino:! Occasionally at Jackie Robinson Essay, that time someone would throw a bottle and that was the last thing you’d want to happen because it would immediately be felt that it’s coming from one of the enemy and all hell would break loose.” (ibid.) The roots of some of the steelband territorial rivalry may well go back to act and, earlier times. According to Ralph Araujo: “In those days, the days of the Jackie Robinson Essay, Great Depression, youth in Belmont was generally touched with poverty but not unhappy, full of rivalry but not of factional bitterness. Belmont was the center of our lives. Woodbrook was a place where we had to change tramcars. it lay in a direction in which our elder brothers sometimes sallied forth on their bicycles in pursuit of new girlfriends—and it is interesting how many marriages resulted in cross-breeding of the Woodbrook and Belmont strains.

It was a standing joke…that Belmont boys never married Belmont girls—as we told the the new asylums, girls, they were too “own way.” This Montague/Capulet arrangement seems to have created a certain amount of Jackie Robinson Essay, friendly rivalry between Woodbrook and Newtown boys on the one hand and Belmont boys on the other, a rivalry which sometimes surfaces now amonsgt those who grew up in that era.”(1984:5) George Goddard, old-time panman and early president of the Trinidad Steelband Association, also claims that “turf clashes preceded the development of steelbands and underprivileged youths would have fought among themselves or with the police in any event.” (1983:7). In the eulogy delivered for Wilfred “Speaker” Harrison, early leader of the Desperadoes steelband, he was remembered as having: “insisted that the colgate wisp uk, early Despers all have tatoos on their backs, chests or forearms, which was to Robinson in Baseball Essay, indicate Life Membership, and be given code names. He was referred to as The Dresden, and on the battlefield as Sergeant Rollock and sometimes Inspector Fugot, becoming General in colgate wisp uk, charge of Central Intelligence, Despers. Robinson! He organized battle practice sessions…for all the men he would select to operate with him in launching attacks on the enemy.” At the height of the violent steelband era, it was not only the government, police, and elites in Trinidad who feared or were against the steelband clashes. Colgate Wisp Uk! A calypso of the time advised the government to in Baseball Essay, “ …give the hooligans the old time cat-o-nine and they bound to change their mind. With licks like fire send them Carrera (a prison island) and they bound to surrender.” (DeLeon,1983:5).ld-time panman Carleton Constantine, popularly known as Zigili, recalls that: “So much different things used to marks, cause them.

A woman from one band, she have a man from in Baseball Essay, one bnd and probably see a next guy from a next band. That is one of the the new asylums, factors. Then…sometimes …like tunes bands playing—this band playing this tune say the next one take their tune. In a dance where drinks is concerned— anything, anything at all, because that was a era that violence was very high. So anything could start a fight.” (1983:4)

Concerning the weapons used in clashes, Tony Slater states that, “bottles (were used), one or two people may have a gun …a lot of people get damaged, a lot of instruments get damaged; ‘67 was the worst, it was a total wreck. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay! All amplification, everything mash up. It was a form of jealousy.” (1983:8) Curtis Pierre offers a chilling account of his personal experience in a 1953 steelband clash: “There was a certain amount of turf rivalry, which there is in any type of group activity. For no other reason than, you know, you just want to be King of the Rock and guys said, ‘You’re from Belmont and you should not be walking in Woodbrook.’ It had nothing to do with the quality of your music, it had nothing to do with whether you had their girl, people have advanced all kinds of reasons, that, you know, this girl was seen walking with a guy from Invaders so that the boy from the new asylums, Desperadoes got annoyed. My experience in 1953 when steelbands were asked to come on the road for the coronation of Elizabeth when she was crowned; we had a clash with a band called Ebonites. It was not anything that they knew who we were or we knew who they were. Some little incident sparked it off and it got real messy.

You know, guys were swinging baseball bats. I got hit with a baseball bat. Lucky nobody was holding it at the time, somebody just flung it across. One guy next to me got his cheek cut open with a razor. That was the Jackie in Baseball, scariest part, you just saw the colgate wisp uk, flesh part and you saw the teeth and a couple minutes after, the blood. One guy came charging at me with what looked like a piece of a kitchen fork, a large kitchen fork, and all I could do was raise the tenor pan I had and hit him across the bridge of Robinson, his nose and that I remember also seeing the bone just go white and act and act, the guy’s eyes closed and he flaked out and I disappeared. But it was not a pitched, prolonged battle. Robinson In Baseball Essay! Within minutes there were sirens and everybody scattered.

Nor were there any sort of vindictive feelings in that particular battle.” (1983:5) World War II saw several U.S military bases in Trinidad, and many movies with violent war, gangster, and marks canada, Western themes. Robinson! The steelbands took on or Violence-Obsessed?, some of the films’ names, individual steelbandsmen took actors’ names for their nicknames and emulated actors’ behavior. There are still steelbands bearing some of these movie-inspired names. Pat Chu-Foon recalls that: “ …those were the days when we used to see a lot of these films with Back to Bataan and Robert Taylor and Audie Murphy. It inspire the moviegoer and these poor fellas, some of them just lived in the cinema in those days. Most of them didn’t work, other than playing pan, tuning pan, lazing around playing a game of wappie (a card game), they just scrunt for some money to go to Robinson Essay, the next matinee and after seeing a good war picture they want to do the same thing, and this is what caused a lot of thing, with the steelband clashing those periods.

It was like a game. You would see fellas go up and say, ‘Look, we going up to beat Casablanca tonight. Invaders, we going and the new asylums, beat the Invaders.’ You hear how the names are, all war names. Invaders from Woodbrook coming up to clash with so and so and they meet on this corner. Men used to walk with razors in their waist.” (1983:4-5) The steelband badjohn role was an important one, a source of identity for many young Trinidadian males that had to be maintained, even if only as a front. Bertie Marshall reports, “I cultivated my badjohn image.

But my badjohnism was a pose really. Still, it was necessary to cultivate the image. And I managed to do this yet at the same time keeping my hands clean—except for a couple of Jackie in Baseball Essay, gambling cases which were no big thing, really. But the lodge, image was an important thing in those days.” (Marshall, 1972: Vol. 2, No. 5:9) Positive Influences of the Steelband Movement. Not all of the experiences of the steelband movement were negative. There are success stories on all levels. As Carleton Constantine (Zigili) said in Robinson in Baseball, 1983: “I have to be very grateful to steelband.

Because I left this country in work, 1956 . and lived in the UK and Robinson in Baseball Essay, up to this day I am making a living from steelband. It was good to me because I have seen the world, I have traveled through the whole of david, Europe, the Middle East, Far East, and still playing.” (1983:5) Steelband music provided many young Trinidadian males with opportunities for personal growth and Robinson, the development of the new asylums, leadership skills that they found useful in Essay, other areas of their lives. Curtis Pierre, in response to an open-ended query about colgate wisp uk steelband, said that: “A lot of the distance I’ve covered in Jackie Robinson, my life both in terms of a businessman, as a father, as an organizer, I can safely say that the experience I’ve gained, I owe it completely to my exposure in the steelband world. I’ve learned how to deal with people, I’ve learned how to handle people, I’ve learned how to take insults, I’ve learned how to give. You know, it is really a forge for straightening out your whole approach to life.” (1983:10) George Yeates reports on a perhaps unforeseen outcome of the police-band violence of the early steelband era: “I had been able to command a great respect among steelbandsmen, and I had that disturbance (a steelband clash) quelled. I did as much work or perhaps even more work than the police, because most of the time the police would come and call me and ask me to go with them whenever they had any steelband clashes.

Superintendent Barnes would always come and event caused the british to enforce of cotton in western, call me to go speak to both sides because when it came to Despers, and I held the reins of Despers, I would try to keep them out of Jackie Robinson in Baseball, any further clashes and let them know that those who want to fight cannot be in marks canada, the band that I run because I am thinking in preparing the band for the music festival and improving the arts, improving the instrument, and these steelband clashes is interfering with my works.”(1983:5-6) Social Change and Acceptance of Steelbands. A precise ordering of the factors that influenced the gradual acceptance of steelband music is in Baseball not possible, since they overlapped and since there is no consensus even among persons on the scene, concerning the chronology of the new asylums, events and their importance. Growing acceptance due to one factor brought about acceptance in Jackie Robinson Essay, another area. The factors contributing to the new asylums, steelbands’ greater acceptance include the following: 1. Acceptance by several influential citizens, including writers, intellectuals, lawyers, musicians, and Jackie Robinson, politicians. 2. Government concern, expressed in committee reports and the formation of a steelband association. 3. Commercial sponsorship. 4. Successful exportation to and enthusiastic reception of steel bands in foreign countries.

5. Lodge! Open support from the People’s National Movement political party. 6. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay! Involvement in the bands of white, light-skinned, and better-educated middle-class persons, including more middle-class women. 7. Refinements in the instruments. 8. The playing of semi-classical and classical music. 9. Marks Spencer! Involvement of steelbands in music festivals, in churches, at funerals, and at middle-and upper-class social gatherings.

10. A resurgence of Black Power and pride in the early 1970s. Support of Influential Citizens. Starting in about 1946, the Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, Trinidad Youth Council and its members, including attorney and musician Lenox Pierre, Canon Farquhar, Kelvin Scoon, and Errol Hill, made consistent efforts to gain social acceptance of Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, steelband music, instruments, players, and supporters. Jackie Robinson In Baseball! Albert Gomes was another outspoken supporter who fought the tide of popular and official opinion of steelbands long before the government committees were appointed. He was “frequently at the office of the Commissioner of Police, more often than not accompanied by the steelband boys themselves, lodging complaints against provocative acts by Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed? the police.

But the police were no more than instruments of the prevailing prejudice… The root cause of it all was intense class feeling.” (Gomes, 1974:99). At a 1945 meeting of the Legislative Council, to in Baseball, which he had just been elected, Gomes said, “Some people feel that some others should never enjoy themselves …and that the music should belong to one particular class… Personally, while I sit and enjoy Beethoven, it does not blind me to marks spencer, the fact that we have got to live among a people …of divers races and creeds, and that we cannot fit these in Jackie in Baseball Essay, a particular design.” (ibid.) Other respected members of society became outspoken advocates of the canada, steelband movement. Beryl McBurnie, dancer, choreographer, and founder of the Little Carib Theatre, brought the Invaders steelband into her theater for a performance in 1948 and also got a number of in Baseball, middle-class young men and women involved in steelband. Government Concern, Recommendations, and Action. The 1952 Farquhar Committee report noted that: “ …the government appointed a committee in November of espionage act and, 1949 to Jackie, investigate the implications of the (steelband) problem and in April of 1950 the steelbands themselves organized a representative body known as the Trinidad and Tobago Steel Bands Association… With the setting up of machinery for negotiating with the Steel Bands public reaction became more sympathetic, and a new psychological approach to the problem gradually became evident. The steel percussion orchestra, as the steelband is now known, is no longer regarded as an outlawed nuisance. These orchestras perform at social clubs, hotels, concerts and dances and, in many instances, have almost replaced the traditional orchestra.

It is hopefully significant too, to observe the formation of steel orchestras among middle-class youth of both sexes.” (Farquhar, 1952:5). A major concern of the Genius or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, committee was expressed in its findings: “The cohesion and Essay, unity inherent in the steelband movement constitute a great social force which should be exploited and directed into constructive channels. The steelband movement is a people’s movement. It has captured the imagination and energies of the youth of our masses, and provides a ready-made entity around which a whole system of educational activities and what to enforce the production of cotton in western, recreational interests can be advantageously organized. The steelband movement and the problems which stem from it must he viewed as an integral part of the general pattern of social and economic life peculiar to the masses of the colony. In this context one underlying conclusion emerges: there is imperative need for an awakening of a national sense of community responsibility.” (ibid.: n.p.)

Although the 1965 interim report of another government-appointed steelband committee found some fault with the Steelband Association’s leadership and cooperation, it could observe that: “ …the Steelbandsmen feel that they have improved the Jackie Essay, social situation in respect of gang warfare and that the spencer canada, Association (which was formed partly for that purpose) and the National Steelband have improved the situation in in Baseball, respect of espionage act and sedition, inter-band relationships. The Police are also satisfied that the steelbands as such pose no problem to the peace and order of society” (Interim Report, 1965:9) The same report recommended “continuing most vigorously the struggle for social acceptance of the Steelband Movement at home and acceptance and Robinson in Baseball Essay, recognition of the colgate wisp uk, movement abroad.” Commercial sponsorship of the bands was another, to some a dubious, advantage, carrying with it some control over the bands and Jackie, less independence than they had previously enjoyed. Nevertheless, the bands needed the legitimacy, status, funding, and perhaps organization that sponsorship could provide. Oil companies, banks, airlines, and similar large enterprises sponsored steel bands starting in the 1950s. They supplied uniforms emblazoned with their names, as were the drums themselves, and the sponsors enjoyed good publicity and public relations benefits. They sometimes sent the the new asylums, bands to other islands or to Europe, Canada, or the Jackie Robinson in Baseball, United States. Recalling his early association with the West Indian Tobacco Company as the sponsor of his Desperadoes steelband, George Yeates said that, “From then onwards, this is where I can say that Despers has been the trendsetters…for good behavior in the steelband movement, because they no longer had cause to fight…they were thinking that they would lose their sponsorship, so that sort of held them.” (1983:7)

Other panmen expressed their views on the role of sponsorship in the steelband movement. Curtis Pierre thought: “It was a good thing because even though we all know it came from the underprivileged, when this thing started to evolve and the costs started to Genius or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, go up, the bands who had a sponsor …you found that those bands were better. And then the sponsorship thing got very, very big and Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, the government got onto it and decided, ‘Okay, well this would be a nice vote-catching gimmick if we can tell the steelbandsmen that we are giving instructions to the business community to nice work, sponsor their bands.’ So from Essay, a devious motive came a very good end result. It went out of control in the last couple years where sponsors were being called upon to pay some thing like twenty or thirty thousand dollars a year for a band.” (I983:4) “Sponsorships play a good part (in easing the tension). Colgate Wisp Uk! To me it give and it takes. Because some people say you lost your name, but you get money. And a lot of bands need money because preparing a band for Panorama (a Carnival steelband competition) is expensive.

Sponsors have done a lot. They needed money to progress and sponsorship assisted a lot of bands to progress. Some bands don’t need sponsors, they get along somehow. But the bands with sponsors, those are the progressive bands today.” (1963:8). Pat Chu-Foon’s opinion of sponsorship throws a new light on the issue: “Well, long after when they settle down properly and Jackie Robinson in Baseball, they were like gentlemen of pan, and the british the production of cotton, pan started to make history in Europe, then and only then certain top companies started to assist to choose sponsorships here and there.” (1983:12). Sponsorship did not blossom, in Jackie Robinson Essay, fact, until after the the new asylums, successful 1951 European tour of the Trinidad All Steel Percussion Orchestra, discussed in more detail below. The Steelband Abroad. Another important factor in Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, the increasing acceptance of steelband music was its exportation to other countries.

In 1951, under the sponsorship of the Trinidad Youth Council, an all-star steelband, called the Trinidad All-Steel Percussion Orchestra (TASPO) was sent to England to play at the Festival of Britain, and to France. The 1952 Farquhar Report stated that the band “convincingly demonstrated the possibilities of the steel orchestras as a distinct and original contribution to the field of music.” (1952:n.p.). Canada! Errol Hill has observed that: “They were very successful, and once the pan became recognized as a new kind of musical form in England, then the local population had to accept it. Once people outside said, ‘this is great, there’s something here that needs development.’ “(1983:5) Led by police lieutenant Joseph Griffith, the Jackie Essay, band amazed the espionage sedition, European audiences. A London correspondent wrote: “People smiled indulgently as the rusty pans were rolled off the cart and set up. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay! It seemed impossible that music could come out of such unlikely instruments. But jaws dropped and eyes widened as the first sweet notes were struck and or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, the band swung into Mambojambo. Feet were soon tapping to the rhythm of the music.” (Hill, 1972:51) The music critic of the Manchester Guardian found the band’s playing of Toselli’s Serenade “equal to anything that a first-class band could offer. The playing is wonderfully skilled.” (ibid. In Baseball! :51) Today there are steelbands in many countries outside Trinidad. There is a U.S.

Navy steelband organized with the help of Trinidadian Ellie Mannette and steelbands in Boston, New York, Washington-Baltimore, Montreal, Toronto, and in spencer canada, high schools, colleges, and universities throughout the United States, thanks largely to Mannette, now living in the United States, and other Trinidadian promoters. Essay! This spread is at Tarantino: Essay, once the result of, and evidence for, acceptance and creates even more legitimacy. Support by the People’s National Movement Party (PNM) Errol Hill reports that: US Navy Steelband. “After 1956, with the Jackie, coming to power of Williams’ People’s National Movement, we saw a change in the whole psychology of the people. The New Asylums! They had at last got in Jackie Robinson in Baseball, a government of their own that purported to represent the people. They were moving toward self-government.

It was necessary to establish an event caused to enforce in western indigenous culture, and there was a great surge forward to find those elements of our culture that could be identified as belonging to Trinidad and Tobago. The calypso was one, the steelband was another. And I think as a result of this that the steelband began to come into its own.” (1983:8-9) J. D. Elder supports this view: “The sickening picture has undergone radical transformation. The most obvious change in the carnival calypso- steelband movement is the demonstration, at State level, of the Robinson in Baseball Essay, admission that Trinidad popular music and musical festivals are elements of a high order in the national culture and that government has responsibility to so recognize it and give tangible demonstration of this attitude. This move is vitalizing; it has been effective in sedition act, raising to a high status not only the Robinson in Baseball Essay, traditional music…but it has also elevated the spencer, total folk cultural complex to Robinson in Baseball Essay, a status never known in the past. The New Asylums! Folklore in all its forms has suddenly attained an attractive status. This new awakening in the whole society to Jackie in Baseball Essay, the fact that the folk and their art and craft are important, must be put down squarely to the new attitude of government.”(1968:25-26). Susan Craig has observed that, “the PNM had an appeal for the urban unemployed, especially those who had created the steelbands. Steel bandsmen became the unofficial ‘army’ of the PNM in david lodge, 1956.” (1982:391). George Yeates, in a 1983 interview, said that if Despers were to simply move in and play in an area in support of a political candidate, that could almost assure election.

They could do this even without a police permit to play. The police would be afraid of them because of their reputation and, in Robinson in Baseball, any event, would not want to marks canada, shoot their own people (1983:12). Others have contended that whoever controls the Desperadoes controls the whole Laventille area. And the band has always supported the PNM. Bands in the PNM areas prospered after they came to power, but then so did many others, because of the cultural resurgence. Selwyn Mohamed has stated that the PNM does get Despers and other bands to help it. Robinson Essay! The bands, says Mohamed, disrupt meetings of other political parties and they take people to the polls. A political party split in one band caused bloodshed before the election, and for some PNM functions, only Casablanca would play. (1985:2) In 1956 Bertie Marshall formed a small band he named the PNM Band, because they played at everything the PNM had in Laventille. The PNM office was near their practice yard, and although the PNM officials always praised the band and promised to help them, “I have never gotten any of the things promised me by members of government over the last fifteen or sixteen years. Still, we played as the colgate wisp uk, PNM Band.” (Marshall, Vol.

2, No. Jackie Robinson In Baseball Essay! 4:4). Work David! Although the evidence is mixed concerning the precise role the government, ruling party, and Jackie Robinson in Baseball, bands play with respect to each other, Curtis Pierre points out that, clearly, the steelbandsmen constitute a potentially valuable voting bloc: “You would look at the number of bands and they are made up of fifty guys each, and each one of those guys has a spin-off factor of 4.3 or something like that in his family. If you get hold of some of those bands and you multiply by forty and then multiply by Tarantino: Essay five, you have a sizable voting population.” (1983:4-5) Personal Involvement of the Jackie in Baseball Essay, Middle Class. The acceptance of steelbands grew when middle-class, lighter-skinned, and white young people started getting involved, often over what event caused to enforce the production of cotton in western, the strenuous objections of Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, their parents, teachers, friends, and relatives. Curtis Pierre became involved in 1949: “I took the instrument home and I got enough flak from marks canada, my parents, ‘What the hell you doing with this thing here? I don’t care who plays that. This is the underprivileged.’” (1983:1).

The grouping in Jackie Robinson in Baseball, my band would be considered a little above middle class, which was anathema, that kind of thing was just not done by people in the new asylums, that class” (ibid. Robinson In Baseball Essay! :2). Pierre attributes to his group the change in the degree to which steelbandsmen and the new asylums, women are accepted in Essay, society: “We have been told it’s because of our group…that …’ You fellas made a breakthrough. You guys don’t realize what you did. You fought society and you said, We’re going to make this thing great’”(1983:3). Marks! Concerning the racial makeup of Robinson, his band, Dixieland, he says that, “it could be considered what the people here would call fair-skinned boys. Espionage Sedition Act! And there was not a predominance of Negroes in it at all, mainly because that was what middle class meant in those days. Essay! And that’s true, middle class had a certain color. It no longer applies today… These boys from the best schools,…you found they were all fair-skinned.” (ibid. :6).

Teacher, pan player, and arranger Ray Holman recalls that: The change came about when people like myself, who might have the benefit of event caused the british the production in western india?, a secondary school education, began to come into the bands. Robinson Essay! So people began to look, the public at large began to look at it a little differently.” (1983:3). Sedition! The principal of Robinson in Baseball Essay, my college, Queen’s Royal College, was an what caused to enforce the production india? English Army Officer; he was a pretty stern fellow. He couldn’t really understand how I could get involved in Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, that (steelbands). It was like a social outcast at the time.” (ibid.:6). The band he joined at age thirteen, the Oval Invaders, accepted him easily: “They were very glad to have us.

It was like we injected something new so we were very welcome and we had a privileged place in nice work, the band. If you are mixing with people, sometimes you would have to follow the crowd. Essay! But following the crowd for me didn’t mean getting involved in violence. It just meant playing pan…having a good time within the limits of certain standards. What The British The Production Of Cotton India?! I saw my role should have been to try to uplift them, rather than my coming down. This is how I saw it.” (ibid.:7-8).

George Goddard believes that only when middle-class youth began being brought up on charges before the police magistrates did public concern over steelband grow and efforts begin to Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay, “reform” the movement and work with it. The New Asylums! This concern speeded up the changes, even if they might have come eventually without middle-class involvement (1983:2). The 1965 Interim Report of the Committee on the Role of Steelband in National Life reported that much of the struggle for social acceptance has been fought by persons outside of the Jackie Robinson, groups from which the original steelbands sprang: “The efforts…of Dixieland (a group of the St. Mary’s pupils which contained many persons of largely European descent) which persisted in the early 1950s despite some disapproval by some persons closely connected to its members, and Girl Pat (an all female steelband of teachers, civil servants, etc.) of the early 1950s. Now we find that there is an act appreciable number of ex-Secondary School pupils in the Steelband Movement and the movement has enjoyed such confidence of the Community that it has been upwardly socially mobile to the extent that it embraces many persons who would be classified in our society as middle class.

Racial integration has perhaps been the most resounding sociological achievement of the steelband movement. Born in circumstances rather confined to in Baseball Essay, one ethnic group—the Negro—it has spread to every ethnic group in society…We have come across no bands whose rules relating to recruitment would restrict admission of any sector of the population…The steelband movement has made a most significant contribution to colgate wisp uk, the integration of the races.” (1965:10) Changes in the Repertoire and Instruments. Steelbands were more accepted when the instruments became more refined and melodious, when bands started playing more difficult classical and semi-classical music, and as they performed at local and foreign music festivals and competitions, in churches, at weddings, and at middle and upper class social gatherings. In Baseball! Curtis Pierre believes that the music sounds better today because money and sponsors have led to improvements in event to enforce the production of cotton, the instruments.

“The instruments can be tuned better and you can afford a better class of arrangers, musically, and they’re not afraid to tackle any type of music. In Baseball! When that kind of music is played, it will naturally attract a more curious and what caused the british of cotton india?, probably a better style of individual to play.” (1983:8-9). Kelvin Scoon, Trinidadian businessman, steelband supporter, calypso judge, and former Secretary of the Youth Council, contends that panmen themselves wanted to learn to play the classics in order to use more notes, to challenge and stretch the range of their instruments and their own abilities, not to please others or to be more accepted by in Baseball Essay them. They first broadened their repertoires to include Latin and popular music. (1985:2) Musician, conductor, and arranger Pat Bishop points out that at first the playing of classical music, religious music, hymns, or Christmas carols was met with revulsion by the upper classes. Essay! They were shocked that such “lofty” music would be attempted with the crude instruments and felt the steel drum unworthy of the effort. But the pan players persisted and gradually their music was accepted. (1985:2). In Baseball Essay! According to Scoon, compared to the early days of the steeldrum, the the new asylums, sound of today’s instruments is far more refined, mellower in tone, and there is a much wider range of pitches utilized. Forty years ago there were not as many types of drum, and the repertoire consisted primarily of calypsoes and Latin music. Popular and classical pieces were added, and a variety of arrangements used.

Considerable talent and ingenuity in tuning and designing the instruments has evolved, and more is known about working the metal and tempering it. The drumsticks are now rubber-tipped, creating a mellower tone. Influences from jazz and fusion and constantly evolving experimental arrangements characterize the present repertoire. (1985:1) Although there is no empirical evidence to verify the observation, it seems quite likely that as the steelbands began to engage in sponsored musical competitions with audiences including middle-class people, they sought to maintain and increase the latter’s interest and support by striving for a smoother, more refined sound, a wider range of notes, and a broader repertoire. They were also motivated by Jackie Robinson in Baseball Essay their own inner desire to stretch their talents and the potential of their instruments by taking on more challenging musical scores and showing themselves, their fellow countrymen, and the world what could be achieved with talent, hard work, and an instrument of humble origins. The attention received from respected musical personages, both local and foreign, at first informally and then more formally at competitions, carnival time and steelband festivals, encouraged those involved in steelband music to expand and excel. The middle-class social contexts in which they were asked to play also had an impact on the kinds of music they found appropriate. Participation in Music Competitions. In 1952 steelbands were invited to participate in work, the prestigious biennial music festival in Trinidad and foreign music adjudicators judged their performances. One of these, Dr. Sydney Northcote from England, at first quite skeptical about steel bands, eventually came to hail the music as “truly astonishing.” In 1956 he commented that “their performance was orchestral in every way.

The melodic line was beautifully smooth, almost like the playing of a string orchestra The technical skill of it all proved that there are possibilities of acquiring with the steelband an Jackie Robinson Essay orchestral precision.” (Hill, 1972:52). The enthusiastic reception of steelbands by the U.S. armed forces stationed in Trinidad also enhanced their image, as did their inclusion in the carnival celebrations. Today it is not unusual in Trinidad to hear and see live steelband music in the new asylums, church services, at funerals, at Robinson in Baseball, wedding ceremonies or receptions, diplomatic affairs, or middle-and upper-class parties. There has been some decline in recent years, however, due to the high costs of steel bands, competition from U.S. music styles, and the bands’ more limited repertoire (they have largely become “one-tune bands” for the annual carnival steelband competition). Today there are all women steelbands, bands sponsored by companies for their employees, and children’s steel bands. Summary and Analysis of Factors of the new asylums, Social Change. The gradual acceptance of steelband music seems to have started with a few outspoken persons who, motivated by social conscience, egalitarian ideology, nationalistic pride, and favorable attitudes toward Afro-Trinidadian culture, pressured the government for in Baseball Essay acceptance, tolerance, change, and involvement.

Government concern led to the formation of a steelband association of concerned citizens and, along with commercial sponsorship, inroads were made with the general citizenry. After foreign acceptance of the music and the instruments, even more local middle-class people supported the development of steel bands. When it was seen in the early 1960s that local middle-class, white, educated youth were taking steeldrum music seriously, and even excelling at it, involvement in marks, it became popular (Pierre, 1983:3). Politically and historically the Jackie Essay, mid-1950s were suitable for the development of a Trinidadian and sedition act, West Indian identity and pride. Great Britain was granting independence to its colonies. Local political leaders needed and wanted the Robinson Essay, support of the masses and would not have been wise to colgate wisp uk, oppose a form of musical and cultural expression that was so vital to their identity. Essay! As the instruments developed a more refined and mellow tone, and as they were used to play semi-classical and spencer, classical pieces, the middle classes slowly began to accept them.

Because their social and personal identities had been so closely linked to Jackie in Baseball, steelband music, some panmen may have suffered from the greater involvement of government and colgate wisp uk, the middle class. Generally though, because of greater involvement in formal education and in the labor market, Trinidadians were upwardly mobile during the era of the in Baseball, rise of the steel bands, and they developed alternate and supplemental social roles and identities (Scoon, 1985:1). Most bands seem to have benefited from the involvement of the middle classes because sponsorship and support allowed them to hire expensive arrangers and tuners, as well as to purchase quality instruments and uniforms, and at times to travel abroad. Spencer Canada! This is Jackie Robinson in Baseball a question on which opinions differ, however. Steelbands have undergone considerable change. Their role in the annual carnival celebration, at first a progressive step, has diminished considerably. The large carnival masquerade groups, some numbering three thousand, cannot hear the steel bands playing while they are parading.

The steelbands do not want to use amplification, and their method of moving on the streets, with somewhat clumsy racks or stands, seems to hinder their effectiveness at carnival. They are being replaced with brass bands using amplification or by the new asylums disc jockeys. Panorama, the steelband competition at carnival, has caused bands to focus on one tune they can perform very well, so they reduce their repertoire for Jackie Essay ftes and other social events. The Panorama, many observers believe, is now seen by steel bandsmen as the whole carnival and not just one part of it. Some bandsmen will move from colgate wisp uk, a band unsuccessful in the preliminary rounds of the Robinson in Baseball Essay, competition to play for bands making it to the semifinals or finals, evidence that the legendary loyalty to the new asylums, a particular band has decreased. Arrangers are Trinidadians living abroad and command very high salaries for preparing music for the annual Panorama competition. Sponsors may pay up to $250,000 a year to support a band and $100,000 is not uncommon. The players do not earn much money, the bulk going to the captains and arrangers. In 1985 the Black Power-oriented National Joint Action Committee issued a national appeal to fte promoters to hire steelbands rather than disc jockeys to support their national heritage throughout the year (Obika, 1985:1). It is hard to keep bands together throughout the year. Some feel that drug use is part of this problem; others point out that there is also competition from jobs (more panplayers are employed than before), education (more are in school), and television.

More people play alternate roles in society and find the pan player role merely subsidiary. Some bands have established working relationships with schools whereby they recruit a pool of players from the schools and in return provide pan instruction in Jackie in Baseball Essay, their panyards. Pan seems to reflect less cultural and national pride today. More panmen need and want pay. Curtis Pierre contends that today’s steelbands are too large to colgate wisp uk, be hired for social events such as weddings or ftes. He feels they should number about fifteen players and use amplifiers to cut the costs and increase bookings (1983:8).

Socioeconomic class, color, and in Baseball Essay, race have affected the creation and evolution of steelband music in Trinidad and Tobago. African customs, including skin drumming, were suppressed by the new asylums the British colonial government and later by many elite or status-seeking black and colored persons who wished to disassociate themselves from the music, instruments, and life-styles of Trinidad’s poor urban masses of African heritage. Because the Robinson in Baseball, instrument and the social organization of the steel bands came to symbolize important, even vital, forms of cultural and the new asylums, racial expression, the in Baseball, poor, urban Afro-Trinidadian steel bandsmen and women persisted in their efforts, refining the instrument and sharpening their own musical talents and skills, expanding their musical repertoire, and eventually winning the support, encouragement, and active assistance of a few key people in Trinidad and abroad. The organization of the act, bands provided needed social roles for Jackie Robinson in Baseball players and opportunities for nice david bandleaders to develop and demonstrate leadership skills and thus fill leadership roles otherwise unavailable to them in the society. Not all of Jackie, this leadership was channeled into violent conflicts with other bands or the police, and many steelbandsmen have credited their experiences with steelband music with developing skills they have used in or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, work or life in general. Their self-image, as well as that of the in Baseball Essay, players, was enhanced by their roles in colgate wisp uk, the steelband. As the steelbands gained favor both at home and abroad, they were viewed as symbols of Essay, individual, racial, community, and national pride and as a unique creative accomplishment. As recognition from abroad grew so too did support at espionage act and sedition act, home from higher-status persons. Jackie Robinson Essay! The several factors that contributed to the gradually increased acceptance of the bands, the espionage act and, players, their instruments, and Jackie Robinson in Baseball, music indicate that this acceptance was achieved at to enforce of cotton, the expense of the bands’ independence and that it came about only Jackie, after the musical repertoire had changed, business had exercised some control over the bands’ behavior (lighter-skinned, white, and higher-status people had joined the movement and the government openly supported it.) In short, it was not accepted on its own merits, but was changed by those who could confer legitimacy and higher status on it. Paget Henry, writing on decolonization and event of cotton, neocolonialism, has observed that there is a locally rooted demand for foreign culture, persisting even after decolonization. In Baseball Essay! As a result of colonial domination, the colonized ceased to have an marks canada easy, creative, and self-reflexive relationship with their cultural environment.

Elements of it had now been systematically imposed from without. (Henry and Stone, 1983:115) Colonial domination further inhibited the demand for the words, songs, ideas, and other products of the local cultural system. There was a greater demand for foreign cultural products. Decolonization only Jackie in Baseball Essay, partially uprooted the set of social and psychological processes that generated the demand for imported culture. The New Asylums! The demand for Jackie Robinson in Baseball foreign culture shows no signs of abating, writes Henry (ibid.: 1l6), and the major dynamic in the foreign sector of the cultural system is the institutionalization of a growing American presence (ibid.:117). This helps explain why many Trinidadian intellectuals, artists, and musicians blame the lack of what they consider sufficient local support for the steelband on colgate wisp uk, the influx of Essay, American music and canada, lifestyle in general, which they feel many Trinidadians are adopting too readily, trying to “live like Yankees” at the expense of their own culture’s contributions. Although steelband music has become much more accepted in Trinidad and Tobago and in Baseball Essay, abroad, it still faces competition from foreign musical tastes and difficulties caused by technology, costs, and a lingering and deeply-rooted self-denigration on the part of many Trinidadians. I am deeply grateful for the invaluable assistance of Anthony and Avril Bryan, Mackie Burnette, Deborah Cabral, Rhode Island College Dean of Arts and Sciences David Greene, Professor Errol Hill of Dartmouth College, Yvonne James of Providence, RI , and Arima, Trinidad and Tarantino: Genius or Violence-Obsessed? Essay, Tobago, Cynthia Mahabir of Suffolk University, Boston, Ancil McLean, Judith Philip, Everald Philip, Charles Price, Kelvin Scoon, Daniel Segal, the Jackie in Baseball Essay, National Endowment for the Humanities, the Rhode Island College Faculty Research Committee and the talented and dedicated steelbandsmen and women of Trinidad and canada, Tobago. 1. Anonymous 1, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 2. Anonymous 2, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

3. Robinson Essay! Araujo, Ralph, 1984, Memoirs of nice work david, a Belmont Boy, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 4. Bishop, Patricia, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Robinson in Baseball, Tobago. 5. Blood, Peter, 1983, People in Carnival , Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Imprint Caribbean Ltd. 6. Brereton, Bridget, 1979, Race Relations in Colonial Trinidad, 1870-1900, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 7. The New Asylums! Brereton, Bridget, 1981, A History of Modern Trinidad, 1783-1962, Kingston, Jamaica: Heinemann University Press. 8. Cho-Foon, Patrick, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 9. Constantine, Carleton, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 10.

Craig, Susan, 1982, Contemporary Caribbean: A Sociological Reader. Vol. 2., Maracas, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press 11. Da Silva, Fabio B., 1984, The Sociology of Music, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press. 12. DeLeon, Rafael, 1983, personal interview, Mt.

Lambert, Trinidad and Tobago. 13. Elder, J. D., 1968, Social Development of the Traditional Calypso of Trinidad and Tobago, Mimeographed, St. Robinson In Baseball! Augustine, Trinidad and Genius, Tobago: University of the West Indies. 14. Farquhar, M. Robinson In Baseball Essay! E., 1952, Report of the Government Steel Bands Committee, Port of Spain, Trinidad and espionage sedition, Tobago. 15. Jackie Robinson In Baseball! Goddard, George, 1983, personal interview, Diego Martin, Trinidad and Tobago.

16. Gomes, Albert, 1974, Through a Maze of Colour, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Key Caribbean Publications. 17. Henry, Paget, and Carl Stone, editors, 1983, The Newer Caribbean: Decolonization, Democracy, and Development, Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of colgate wisp uk, Human Issues. 18. Jackie Robinson Essay! Hill, Errol, 1972, The Trinidad Carnival, Austin: University of Texas Press. 19. David! Hill, Errol, 1983 , personal interview, Hanover, N.H. 20. Holman, Raymond, 1983, personal interview, Woodbrook, Trinidad and Tobago. 21.

Interim Report of the Committee Appointed to Consider the Role of the Steelband in the National Life, 1965, Port of Jackie, Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 22. Keens-Douglas, Paul, 1979, When Moon Shine, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, College Press. 23. Keer, D. Nice Work David! F., 1981, Music of the Pans, Information Bulletin Series F, 91, No. 4., Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago: Trinidad and Tobago Tourist Board. 24. In Baseball! Lovelace, Earl, 1979, The Dragon Can’t Dance, Essex, England: Longman Group. 25.

Mahabir, Cynthia, 1986, “Steeldrums,” Faces: The Magazine about People (Sept.):33-35. 26. Marshall, Bertie, 1972, “The Bertie Marshall Story,” Tapia, Vols. What Event The British Of Cotton In Western! 1, 2, 4, 5. 27. Martin, Von, 1981, Audio tape on the Trinidad steelband movement, Washington, D.C. 28. Mohamed, Selwyn, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

29. Obika, Nyahuma, 1985, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 30. Pierre, Curtis, 1983, personal interview, Port of Jackie Essay, Spain, Trinidad and marks, Tobago. 31. Pierre, Curtis, n.d., “History of the Jackie Robinson in Baseball, Drum” Script for slide/tape program, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 32. Pile, Oscar, 1983, personal interview, Barataria, Trinidad and Tobago. 33. Scoon, Kelvin, 1985, personal interview, Bay Shore, Trinidad and Tobago. 34.

Seeger, Peter, 1961, The Steeldrums of Kim Loy Wong, New York: Oak Publications. 35. Shepherd, John C., 1979, “Music and colgate wisp uk, Social Control: An Essay on in Baseball, the Sociology of or Violence-Obsessed?, Musical Knowledge,” Catalyst, 13:1-54. 36. Slater, Tony, 1983, personal interview, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. 37. Warner, Keith Q., 1982, Kaiso!

The Trinidad Calypso, Washington, D.C.: Three Continents Press. 38. Weber, Max, 1958, The Rational and Social Foundations of Music, edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Reidel, and Gertrude Neuwirth, Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. 39. Yeates, George, 1983, personal interview, Belmont, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

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